All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Joint Operation of Atomic Force Microscope and Advanced Laser Confocal Microscope for Observing Surface Processes in a Protein Crystal

DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2012.223032, PP. 210-214

Keywords: Laser Confocal Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Surface Process, Protein Crystal

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


We demonstrated the insitu observation of a moving atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever using a laser confocal microscope combined with a differential interference microscope (LCM-DIM). The AFM cantilever scanned or indented the {110} surface of a hen egg-white lysozyme crystal in a supersaturated solution. Using a soft cantilever, we could observe the step growth with high time resolution by LCM-DIM and perform quantitative measurements of the step height by AFM simultaneously. In addition, a hard cantilever was used with LCM-DIM to observe the dynamics of crystal surface scratching and indentation. In the supersaturated solution, the small steps generated from the scratched line aggregated to macro steps, and subsequently flattened the surface.


[1]  G. Binnig, C. F. Quate and Ch. Gerber, “Atomic Force Micro-scope,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 56, No. 9, 1986, pp. 930-933. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.56.930
[2]  R. J. Owen, C. D. Heyes, D. Knebel, C. R?cker and G. U. Nienhaus, “An Integrated Instrumental Setup for the Combination of Atomic Force Microscopy with Optical Spectroscopy,” Biopolymers, Vol. 82, No. 4, 2006, pp. 410-414. doi:10.1002/bip.20414
[3]  K. Tsu-kamoto and P. Dold, “Interferometric Techniques for Investigating Growth and Dissolution of Crystals in Solutions,” In: A. Skowronski, J. J. DeYoreo and C. Wang, Eds., Perspectives on Inorganic, Organic, and Biological Crystal Growth: From Fundamentals to Applications, American Institute of Physics, College Park, 2007, pp. 329-341.
[4]  G. Sazaki, T. Matsui, K. Tsukamoto, N. Usami, T. Ujihara, K. Fujiwara and K. Nakajima, “In Situ Observation of Elementary Growth Steps on the Surface of Protein Crystals by Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 262, No. 1-4, 2004, pp. 536-542. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2003.10.049
[5]  A. E. S. Van Driessche, G. Sazaki, G. Dai, F. Otalora, J. A. Gavira, T. Matsui, I. Yoshizaki, K. Tsukamoto, and K. Nakajima, “Direct Observation of Adsorption Sites of Protein Impurities and Their Effects on Step Advancement of Protein Crystals,” Crystal Growth & Design, Vol. 9, No. 7, 2009, pp. 3062-3071. doi:10.1021/cg8006684
[6]  A. E. S. Van Driessche, J. A. Gavira, L. D. Patino Lopez, and F. Otalora, “Precise Protein Solubility Determination by Laser Confocal Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 311, No. 13, 2009, pp. 3479-3484. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2009.04.023
[7]  S. Yanagiya and N. Goto, “Hybrid Observation of Crystal Growth using Laser Confocal Microscope with Atomic Force Microscope,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 312, No. 22, 2010, pp. 3356-3360. doi:10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2010.08.035
[8]  S. Yanagiya and N. Goto, “Interference Phenomena Observed on an Atomic Force Microscope Cantilever by Laser Confocal Microscopy,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2011, pp. 08LB17-1-4. doi:10.1143/JJAP.50.08LB17
[9]  Y. G. Kuznetsov, A. J. Malkin, A. Greenwood, and A. McPherson, “Interferometric Studies of Growth-Kinetics and Surface-Morphology in Macromolecular Crystal- Growth—Canavalin, Thaumatin, and Tur-nip Yellow Mosaic-Virus,” Journal of Structural Biology, Vol. 114, No. 3, 1995, pp. 184-196. doi:10.1006/jsbi.1995.1018
[10]  S. Miyashita, H. Komatsu, Y. Suzuki and T. Nakada, “Observation of the Concentration Dis-tribution around a Growing Lysozyme Crystal,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 141, No. 3-4, 1994, pp. 419-424. doi:10.1016/0022-0248(94)90247-X
[11]  K. Kurihara, S. Miyashita, G. Sazaki, T. Nakada, S. Durbin, H. Komatsu, T. Ohba and K. Ohki, “Incorporation of Impurity to a Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 196, No. 2-4, 1999 pp. 285-290. doi:10.1016/S0022-0248(98)00872-0
[12]  S. D. Durbin and W. E. Carlson, “Lysozyme Crystal Growth Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy”, Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 122, No. 1-4, 1992, pp. 71-79. doi:10.1016/0022-0248(92)90228-B
[13]  P. G. Vekilov and F. Rosenberger, “Dependence of Ly- sozyme Growth Kinetics on Step Sources and Impurities,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 158, No. 4, 1996, pp. 540-551. doi:10.1016/0022-0248(95)00398-3
[14]  Y. G. Kuznetsov, A. J. Malkin, T. A. Land, J. J. DeYoreo, A. P. Barba, J. Konnert and A. McPherson, “Molecular Resolution Imaging of Macro-molecular Crystals by Ato- mic Force Microscopy,” Biophysical Journal, Vol. 72, No. 5, No. 5, 1997, pp. 2357-2364. doi:10.1016/S0006-3495(97)78880-5
[15]  T. Nakada, G. Sazaki, S. Miyashita, S. D. Durbin and H. Komatsu, “Direct AFM Observations of Impurity Effects on a Lysozyme Crystal,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 196, No. 2-4, 1999, pp. 503-510. doi:10.1016/S0022-0248(98)00875-6
[16]  L. Rong, T. Yamane and N. Niimura, “Measurement and Control of the Crystal Growth Rate of Tetragonal Hen Egg-white Lysozyme Imaged with an Atomic Force Microscope,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 217, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 161-169. doi:10.1016/S0022-0248(00)00380-8
[17]  H. Hondoh, G. Sazaki, S. Miyashita, S. D. Durbin, K. Nakajima and Y. Matsuura, “Macrobond Analysis of the Macro- and Micromor-phology of Monoclinic Lysozyme Crystal,” Crystal Growth & Design, Vol. 1, No. 4, 2001, pp. 327-332. doi:10.1021/cg015506n
[18]  H. Komatsu and S. Miyashita, “Comparison of Atomic Force Microscopy and Nanoscale Optical Microscopy for Measuring Step Heights,” Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 32, 1993, pp. 1478-1479. doi:10.1143/JJAP.32.1478
[19]  A. E. S. Van Driessche, F. Otalora, G. Sazaki, M. Sleutel, K. Tsukamoto and J. A. Gavira, “Comparison of Different Experimental Techniques for the Measurement of Crystal Growth Kinetics,” Crystal Growth & Design, Vol. 8, No. 12, 2008, pp. 4316-4323. doi:10.1021/cg800782r
[20]  Y. G. Kuznetsov, A. J. Malkin and A. McPherson, “AFM Studies of the Nucleation and Growth Mechanisms of Macromolecular Ccrystals,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 196, No. 2-4, 1999, pp. 489-502. doi:10.1016/S0022-0248(98)00856-2


comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us


微信:OALib Journal