Ancient mtDNA data of human remains were analyzed from four early Iron Age Tarim Basin sites (Yuansha, Zaghunluq, Sampula and Niya) in the southern Silk Road region. Haplogroup distributions show that ancient Tarim Basin population was comprised of well-differentiated Western and Eastern matrilineal lineages. Some West lineage of Tarim Basin population originated from Near East and Iran region. Of the East lineages, North and Northeast Asia originated lineages were the main components, and a few Southeast Asian lineages also existed, which indicated a more extensive origin and a more complex admixture. The genetic structure of ancient Tarim Basin population is relatively close to the modern populations of Xinjiang, which implied that the early Iron Age is an important period during the formation of the modern Xinjiang population.