All Title Author
Keywords Abstract


Epidemiology of the Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Leaf Spot Disease: Genetic Analysis and Developmental Cycles

DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.35070, PP. 582-588

Keywords: Groundnut, Leaf Spot, Cercospora arachidicola, Cercosporidium personatum, DR Congo, Genetic Variation

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib

Abstract:

Groundnut leaf spot is one of the important factors limiting groundnut productivity in Africa particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo). Early and late leaf spot disease of groundnut caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori and Cercosporidium personatum (Berk & Curt.) Deighton, respectively, can cause considerable yield losses without fungicide management. The main objectives of this research were to analyze plant and disease developmental cycles. Significant differences were observed among the groundnut varieties evaluated for resistance to the leaf spot disease. The results show that plant development cycle can be divided into three developmental stages. A first stage characterized by a low production of leaves, a second stage with a significant leaf development and finally a third stage with a reduction of leaves. Interestingly, the leaf spot disease cycle was also divided in three stages. The disease stage characterized by the highest level of symptom expression was not associated with the plant phase with the highest emerged leaves. Disease symptoms reached the highest pick only after the phase of intense leaf development. The molecular analysis revealed that all the groundnut varieties analyzed were genetically closely related even though they showed different reactions to the leaf spot disease.

References

[1]  J. B. Naab, F. K. Tsigbey, P. V. V. Prasad, K. J. Boote, J. E. Bailey and R. L. Brandenburg, “Effects of Sowing Date and Fungicide Application on Yield of Early and Late Maturing Peanut Cultivars Grown under Rainfed Conditions in Ghana,” Crop Protection, Vol. 24, No. 4, 2005, pp. 325-332. doi:10.1016/j.cropro.2004.09.002
[2]  S. K. Nutsugah, M. Abudulai, C. Oti-Boateng, R. L. Brandenburg and D. L. Jordan, “Management of Leaf Spot Diseases of Peanut with Fungicides and Local Detergents in Ghana,” Plant Pathology Journal, Vol. 6, No. 3, 2007, pp. 248-253. doi:10.3923/ppj.2007.248.253
[3]  P. Subrahmanyam and D. H. Smith, “Influence of Temperature, Leaf Wetness Period, Leaf Maturity, and Host Genotype on Web Blotch of Peanut,” Oléagineux, Vol. 44, 1989, pp. 27-31.
[4]  P. Subrahmanyam, D. McDonald, R. W. Gibbons, S. N. Nigam and D. L. Nevill, “Resistance to Rust and Late Leaf Spot Diseases in Some Genotypes of Arachis Hypogaea,” Peanut Science, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1982, pp. 6-10. doi:10.3146/i0095-3679-9-1-2
[5]  L. Tshilenge, “Pathosystem “Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.), Cercospora spp. and Environment in DR-Congo: Overtime Interrelations,” In: K. K. C. Nkongolo, Ed., Contribution to Food Security and Malnutrition in DR- Congo, Laurentian Press, 2010, pp. 195-221.
[6]  F. Waliyar, “Evaluation of Yield Losses Due to Groundnut Leaf Diseases in West Africa,” Summary Proceedings of the Second ICRISAT Regional Groundnut Meeting for West Africa, Niamey, 11-14 September 1990.
[7]  D. R. Butler, “Weather Requirements for Infection by Late Leaf Spot in Groundnut,” Summary Proceedings of the Fourth Regional Groundnut Workshop for Sourthern Africa, Arusha, 19-23 March 1990.
[8]  T. Nagaoka and Y. Ogihara, “Applicability of Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat Polymorphisms in Wheat for Use as DNA Markers in Comparison to RFLP and RAPD Markers,” Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Vol. 94, No. 5, 1997, pp. 597-602. doi:10.1007/s001220050456
[9]  M. S. Mehes, K. K. Nkongolo and P. Michael, “Genetic Analysis of Pinus strobus and Pinus monticola Populations from Canada Using ISSR and RAPD Markers: Development of Genome-Specific SCAR Markers,” Plant Systematics and Evolution, Vol. 267, No. 1-4, 2007, pp. 47-63. doi:10.1007/s00606-007-0534-1
[10]  F. C. Yeh and T. J. B. Boyle, “Population Genetic Analysis of Co-Dominant and Dominant Markers and Quantitative Traits,” Belgian Journal of Botany, Vol. 129, 1997, p. 157.
[11]  J. S. Armstrong, A. J. Gibbs, R. Peakall and G. Weiller, “The RAPDistance Package,” 2005. ftp://life.anu.edu.au/pub/RAPDistance
[12]  Z. A. Chiteka, D. W. Gorbet, F. M. Shokes, T. A. Kucharek and D. A. Knauft, “Components of Resistance to Late Leafspot in Peanut. I. Levels and Variability- Implications for Selection, Peanut Science, Vol. 15, No. 1, 1988, pp. 25-30.
[13]  D. J. Foster, J. C. Wynne and M. K. Beute, “Evaluation of Detached Leaf Culture for Screening Peanuts for Leafspot Resistance,” Peanut Science, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1980, pp. 98-100. doi:10.3146/i0095-3679-7-2-10
[14]  P. Gillier and P. Sylvestre, “Groundnut, Coll. Agricultural Techniques and Tropical Crop Productions,” Maisonneuve et Larose, Paris, 1969.
[15]  S. Savary and G. Van Santen, “Pathological Approaches for Tropical Crops. Case Study of Groundnut in West Africa,” Editions de l’ORSTOM 213, Paris, 1991, p. 293.
[16]  W. F. Anderson, C. C. Holbrook and J. C. Wynne, “Heritability and Early-Generation Selection for Resistance to Early and Late Leaf spot in Peanut,” Crop Sciences, 1991, Vol. 31, pp. 588-593.
[17]  S. L. Dwivedi, S. Gurtu, S. Chandra, W. Yuejin and S. N. Nigam, “Assessment of Genetic Diversity among Selected Groundnut Germplasm. I: RAPD Analysis,” Plant Breeding, Vol. 120, No. 4, 2001, pp. 345-349. doi:10.1046/j.1439-0523.2001.00613.x
[18]  G. He and C. S. Prakash, “Evaluation of Genetic Relationships among Botanical Varieties of Cultivated Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Using Markers,” Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, Vol. 48, No. 4, 2001, pp. 347-352. doi:10.1023/A:1012019600318
[19]  E. S. Mace, D. T. Phong, H. D. Upaadhyaya, S. Chandra and J. H. Crouch, “SSR Analysis of Cultivated Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Germplasm Resistant to Rust and Leaf Spot Diseases,” Euphytica, Vol. 152, No. 3, 2006, pp. 317-330. doi:10.1007/s10681-006-9218-0

Full-Text

comments powered by Disqus

Contact Us

service@oalib.com

QQ:3279437679

微信:OALib Journal