we report a previously healthy 44 years old female, that presented with mild clouding of consciousness, a left cerebellar syndrome, involvement of v, x and xii left cranial nerves and an alteration of epicritic sensitivity in the left half of the body. cerebrospinal fluid had inflammatory features. cerebrospinal fluid and blood cultures were positive for listeria monocytogenes. magnetic resonance imaging disclosed a rhomboencephalitis. antibiotics were started and the clinical condition of the patient improved progressively. after three months of follow up, the patient is notably recovered and there is a regression of hyperintense lesions of the brainstem in the magnetic resonance imaging. the diagnosis of listeria monocytogenes infection must be born in mind in the presence of a rhomboencephalitis.