parasitic diseases which during their course in the host switch the immune system from a t helper 1 to a t helper 2 response may be detrimental to the host, contributing to granuloma formation, eosinophilia, hyper-ige, and increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections. patients and animals with acute schistosomiasis and hyper-ige in their serum develop pyogenic liver abscess in the presence of bacteremia caused by staphylococcus aureus. the salmonella-s. mansoni association has also been well documented. the association of tropical pyomyositis (pyogenic muscle abscess) and pyogenic liver abscess with toxocara infection has recently been described in the same context. in tropical countries that may be an interesting explanation for the great morbidity of bacterial diseases. if the association of parasitic infections and pyogenic abscesses and/or fungal diseases are confirmed, there will be a strong case in favor of universal treatment for parasitic diseases to prevent or decrease the morbidity of superinfection with bacteria and fungi.