purpose: to know the relationship between students？ phonological awareness and their school performance, and to study if the students preference order or school subjects agree with their performance order obtained in the tests. methods: 24 children in second degree of the public fundamental school was analyzed. they made a oral phonological awareness test and the school performance test. every student with phonological disturbs was excluded from the study. results: we observed that there is an association between preference and performance orders just in arithmetic and writing activities. in reading there is no association. analyzing the results of the phonological awareness test, we observed that the group with medium school performance was more competent than students with lower school performance in activities such as: rhyme, phonemic synthesis, phonemic segmentation and phonemic manipulation. we also observed positive and strong correlation between the studied variables (arithmetic, reading, writing, phonological awareness and school performance). conclusions: we concluded that children with more developed phonological awareness have better school performance than others students; activities of rhyme, synthesis, segmentation and manipulation phonemic are more related with literacy; there is association between preference order and performance in writing and arithmetic activities.