the present study aimed at verifying tooth decay and some associated factors in hemophilic children of both genders with ages from 3 to 12 years old, treated in the center of hemoterapia of pernambuco (hemope) in 2005 and 2006. the data were collected from an intentional sample composed of 40 children. data collection was achieved in two phases: clinical and non-clinical. in the clinical phase, an intrabuccal clinical examination was performed by a specialist. while in the non-clinical phase, the guardians of the children were requested to complete a questionnaire with objective and subjective questions on behavioral and social factors. to determine tooth decay, the ceo-d and cpo-d indexes were adopted as recommended by the world health organization. analysis of the data showed the ceo-d index was 2.00 and the cpo-d index was 0.67. additionally, in respect to the education of the guardians, the ceo-d index was 1.51 and 2.50 for children of parents with incomplete and complete primary school education, respectively. similarly, the cpo-d was 0.78 and 0.59 for participants whose parents had incomplete and complete primary school education, respectively. it was possible to conclude that tooth decay in this group was low and there was a significant association between tooth decay and socioeconomic development indicators. in respect to the education of guardians, less tooth decay was observed in children whose mothers received guidance on oral hygiene and diet.