All Title Author
Keywords Abstract

Evaluation of phosphorus and nitrogen balances as an indicator for the impact of agriculture on environment: A comparison of a case study from Poland and Mississippi US

DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.32036, PP. 317-329

Keywords: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Nutrient Efficiency, Nutrient Availability, Nutrient Budget

Full-Text   Cite this paper   Add to My Lib


The objective of this research was to quantify the changes of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balances in Poland and Mississippi (MS), USA. Nutrient balances were calculated as difference between input and output in the agricultural system according to Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) methodology. A positive nutrient balance means that a potential environmental problem may result from that nutrient; a negative nutrient balance means there is a potential yield loss. The N and P soil surface balances for Poland and MS were calculated for the year 1998 through 2008. The results showed that both MS and Poland had positive N and P balances, indicating that there was a surplus of N and P. The average balance for N was 48 kg·ha-1 in Poland and 102 kg·ha-1 in MS. For P, it was 3 kg·ha-1 in Poland and 19 kg P kg·ha-1 in MS per cultivated area. This research demonstrated that the nutrient balance of N or P depended on the efficient use of each nutrient and type and source of fertilizer used. This research is significant for N and P fertilizer management and their impact on agriculture production and environment health.


[1]  Cassman, K.G., Dobermann, A.M., Walters, D.T. and Yang, H. (2003) Meeting the cereal demand while protecting natural resources and improving environmental quality. Annual Reviews of Environment and Resources, 28, 315-358. doi:10.1146/
[2]  Heathwaite, A.L., Burt, T,P., Trudgill, S,T. and Burt, T,P. (1993) Overview—The nitrate issue. In: Burt, T,P., Heath-waite, A.L. and Trudgill, S.T. Eds., Nitrate: Processes, Patterns and Management, Wiley, Chichester, 3-21.
[3]  Wiesler, F. and Armbruster M. (2009) The application of the Nmin soil test as an element of integrated nitrogen management strategies in agriculture. Fertilizers and Fertilization, 37, 50-58.
[4]  Nielsen, R. (2005) Can we feed the world? Is these a nitrogen limit of food production?
[5]  Owen, Tr. and Jurgens-Gschwind, S. (1986) Nitrates in drinking water: A review. Fertilizer Research, 10, 3-25. doi:10.1007/BF01073902
[6]  Füleky, G. (2009) Downward movement of fertilizer nitrogen in Hungarian soils. Fertilizers and Fertilization, 37, 73.
[7]  OECD. (2007) Gross nitrogen balances. Handbook. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris.
[8]  Gross nutrient balance. Verified on 10-24-2011.
[9]  Methodologies for assessing soil nutrient balances: Macro-level: Sub-Saharan Africa soil nutrient-balance study, FAO, 1983-2000. on 10-24-2011
[10]  Statistical Yearbook of Agriculture (2010) Verified on 10-24-2011.
[11]  Bechmann, M., Eggestad, H.O. and Vagstad, N. (1998) Nitrogen balances and leaching in four agricultural catchments in south-eastern Norway. Environmental Pollution, 102, 493-499. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(98)80074-2
[12]  IFASTATISTICS and IFADATA, Verified on 10-25-2011.;
[13]  FAOSTAT, Verified on 10-25-2011.
[14]  Tilman, D. (1999) Global environmental impacts of agriculture expansion: the need for sustainable and efficient practices. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 5995-6000. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.11.5995
[15]  Parris, K. (1998) Agricultural nutrient balanes as agri-environmenal indictors:an OECD perspective. Environmental Pollution, 102, 219-225. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(98)80036-5
[16]  CSO. (2008) Statistical yearbook of agriculture and rural areas. Central Statistical Office, Warsaw.
[17]  Olesen, J. and Bindi, M. (2002) Consequences of climate change for European agricultural productivity, land use and policy. European Journal of Agronomy, 16, 239-262. doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(02)00004-7
[18]  Sample, E.C., Soper, R.J. and Racz, G.J. (1980) Reaction of phosphate fertilizers in soil. In: Khasawneh F.E., Sample E.C. and Madison, K.E.J. Eds., The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture, ASA, Stoneville, 263-310.
[19]  McLaughlin, M.J., Alston, A.M. and Martin, J.K. (1988) Phosphorus cycling in wheat-pasture rotations. III Organic phosphorus turnover and phosphorus cycling. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 26, 343-353. doi:10.1071/SR9880343
[20]  OECD. (2004) Agriculture, Trade and Environment: The Dairy Sector, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris.
[21]  ?born, I., Edwards, A.C., Witter, E., Oenema, O., Ivarsson, K., Withers, P.J.A., Nilsson, S.I. and Stinzing, R.A. (2003) Element balances as a tool for sustainable nutrient management: A critical appraisal of their merits and limitations within an agronomic and environmental context. European Journal of Agronomy, 20, 211-225. doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(03)00080-7
[22]  OECD. (2001) Environmental Indicators for Agriculture: Methods and Results. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France.
[23]  Oenema, O., Kros, H. and De Vries, W. (2003) Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets: Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies. European Journal of Agronomy, 20, 3-16. doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(03)00067-4
[24]  OECD. (2003) Environmental Performance Reviews— Poland, Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, France.
[25]  Helsinki Commission. (2010) Helcom Ministerial Declaration on the implementation of the Helcom Baltic Sea Action Plan. HELCOM, Moscow.
[26]  Peoples, M.B., Freney, J.R. and Mosier, A.R. (1995) Minimizing gaseous losses of nitrogen. In: Bacon, P.E. Ed., Nitrogen Fertilization in the Environment, Marcel Dekker, New York, 565-602.
[27]  Fotyma, M. (2009) Monitoring of mineral nitrogen contents in soils of Poland. Fertilizers and Fertilization, 37, 108.
[28]  Fotyma, M. and Igras, J. (2009) Contribiution of Polish agriculture to emmision of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds to the Baltic Sea, IUNG-PIB, Pu?awy, 331-348.
[29]  DeLaune, R.D. and Jugsujinda A. (2003) Denitrification potential in Louisiana wetland receiving diverted Mississippi River water. Chemistry and Ecology, 19, 41-418. doi:10.1080/02757540310001618820
[30]  Rick, S., Rick, H.H. and Twilley, R. (2003) Benthic and pelagic nutrient cycling in a costal watershed influenced by river diversions (Caernarvon, Louisiana). ERF Conference Proceedings, Seattle, 14-18 September 2003.
[31]  Rankinen, K., Salo, T. and Rita, H. (2007) Simulated nitrogen leaching, nitrogen mass field balances and their correlation on four farms in south-western Finland during a period 2000-2005. Agriculture and Food Science, 16, 387-406. doi:10.2137/145960607784125348
[32]  Gaj, R. (2008) Sustainable management of phosphorus in soil and plant in conditions of intensive plant production. Fertilizers and Fertilization, 33, 153.
[33]  Lipiński, W. (2000) The soil pH and the nutrients content of polish soils as evaluated by the studies of Soil Test Laboratories. Fertilizers and Ferilization, 3, 89.
[34]  Johnston, A. and Syers, J.K. (2006) Changes in understanding the behavior of soil and fertilizer phosphorus: Implications for their efficient use in agriculture. Proceedings of the International Fertilizer Society, York.
[35]  Igras, J. (2002) The evaluation of phosphorus loses in polish agriculture. Fertilizers and Fertilization, 4, 275.
[36]  Mander, U. and Forsberg, C. (2000) Nonpoint pollution in agricultural watersheds of endangered coastal seas. Ecological Engineering, 14, 317-324. doi:10.1016/S0925-8574(99)00058-0
[37]  Raun, W.R. and Johnson, G.V. (1999) Improving nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. Agronomy Journal, 91, 357-363. doi:10.2134/agronj1999.00021962009100030001x
[38]  Wiesler, F. (1998) Comparative assessment of the efficacy of various nitrogen fertilizers. In: Rengel, Z. Ed., Nutrient Use in Crop Production, Food Products Press, New York, 81-114.
[39]  Grzebisz, W. and Fotyma, M. (2007) Recommendations and use of potassium fertilizers in Central-Easern Europe (CEE). Proceedings of International Fertilizer Society, York, 24.
[40]  Fotyma, M. (2003) Fertilizer use by crops in Poland. FAO, Rome, 44.
[41]  Hahne, H.C.H., Kroontje, W. and Lutz, J.A. (1977) Nitrogen fertilization, I. Nitrate accumulation and losses under continuous corn cropping. Soil Science Society of America, 41, 562-567. doi:10.2136/sssaj1977.03615995004100030028x
[42]  Parris, K. (2007) Agri-environmental performance in Poland. Recent trends and future outlook an OECD perspective. Polish Society for Agronomy. Poznań.
[43]  Cassman, K.G., Dobermann, A. and Walters, D. (2002) Agroecosystems, nitrogen-use efficiency, and nitrogen management. Ambio, 31, 132-140.
[44]  Aarts, H.F.M., Biewinga, E.E. and Van Keulen, H. (1992) Dairy farming systems based on efficient nutrient management. Netherlands Journal of Agriculture Science, 40, 285-299.
[45]  Fardeau, J.C., Guiraud, G. and Marol, C. (1997) Phosphate fertilization: The evolution of its reperesentation over the century. Scientific Representation in Agronomy and Plant Physiology, 117.
[46]  Fotyma, M. and Mercik, S. (1995) Chemia Rolna PWN. Warszawa.
[47]  Arora, S. (2011) Balanced Nutrition for Sustainable Crop Production. Verified on 10-24-2011.
[48]  Schnug, E., Rogasik, J. and Haneklaus, S. (2003) The utilization of fertilizer phosphorus with special view of organic farming. Landbauforsch V?lkenrode (The Federal Agricultural Research Centre-Germany), 53, 1-25.
[49]  Syers, J.K., Johnston, A.E. and Curtin, D. (2008) Efficiency of soil and fertilizer phosphorus use. Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bulletin 18, FAO, Rome.
[50]  Lewis, D.R. and McGechan, M.B. (2002) A review of field scale phosphorus dynamics models. Biosystems Engineering, 82, 359-380. doi:10.1006/bioe.2002.0102
[51]  Johnston, A.E. and Dawson, C.J. (2005) Phosphorus in Agriculture and in Relation to Water Quality. Agricultural Industries Confederation, Peterborough.
[52]  Gburek, W.J., Sharpley, A.N., Heathwaite, L. and Folmar, G.J. (2000) Phosphorus management at the watershed scale: Modification of phosphorus index. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29, 130-144. doi:10.2134/jeq2000.00472425002900010017x
[53]  Haygarth, P.M., Hepworth, L. and Jarvis, S.C. (1998) Form of phosphorus transfer and hydrological pathways from soil under grazed grassland. European Journal of Soil Science, 49, 65-72. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2389.1998.00131.x
[54]  Jorgensen, K.L. and Borggaard, O.K. (1992) A preliminary investigation of sorption and mobility of phosphate in Danish spodosol. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 42, 140.
[55]  McDowell, R.W., Sharpley, A.N. and Kleinman, P.J.A. (2002) Integrating phosphorus and nitrogen decision management at watershed scales. Journal of American Water Resources Association, 38, 479-491. doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2002.tb04331.x
[56]  Sharpley, A.N., Daniel, T.C. and Edwards, D.R. (1993) Phosphorus movement in the landscape. Journal of Production Agriculture, 6, 492-500.
[57]  Sharpley, A.N., Ahuja, L.R., Yamamoto, M. and Mezel, R.G. (9181) The kinetics of phosphorus desorption from soil. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 45, 493- 496. doi:10.2136/sssaj1981.03615995004500030010x
[58]  Frossard, E., Condron, L.M, Oberson, A., Sinaj, S. and Fardeau, J.C. (2000) Processes governing phosphorus availability in temperate soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29, 15-23. doi:10.2134/jeq2000.00472425002900010003x
[59]  Fernall, D. (2011) Soil Nutrient Balances: Reviewing and Developing to Meet Customer Needs, Executive summary, Verified on 10-24-2011.
[60]  Sharpley, A.N. and Withers, P.J.A (1994) The environmentally-sound management of agricultural phosphorus. Fertilizer Research, 39, 133-146. doi:10.1007/BF00750912


comments powered by Disqus