The objective of this research was to quantify the changes of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) balances in Poland and Mississippi (MS), USA. Nutrient balances were calculated as difference between input and output in the agricultural system according to Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) methodology. A positive nutrient balance means that a potential environmental problem may result from that nutrient; a negative nutrient balance means there is a potential yield loss. The N and P soil surface balances for Poland and MS were calculated for the year 1998 through 2008. The results showed that both MS and Poland had positive N and P balances, indicating that there was a surplus of N and P. The average balance for N was 48 kg·ha-1 in Poland and 102 kg·ha-1 in MS. For P, it was 3 kg·ha-1 in Poland and 19 kg P kg·ha-1 in MS per cultivated area. This research demonstrated that the nutrient balance of N or P depended on the efficient use of each nutrient and type and source of fertilizer used. This research is significant for N and P fertilizer management and their impact on agriculture production and environment health.
Cassman, K.G., Dobermann, A.M., Walters, D.T. and Yang, H. (2003) Meeting the cereal demand while protecting natural resources and improving environmental quality. Annual Reviews of Environment and Resources, 28, 315-358. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.28.040202.122858
Bechmann, M., Eggestad, H.O. and Vagstad, N. (1998) Nitrogen balances and leaching in four agricultural catchments in south-eastern Norway. Environmental Pollution, 102, 493-499. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(98)80074-2
Tilman, D. (1999) Global environmental impacts of agriculture expansion: the need for sustainable and efficient practices. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 5995-6000. doi:10.1073/pnas.96.11.5995
Sample, E.C., Soper, R.J. and Racz, G.J. (1980) Reaction of phosphate fertilizers in soil. In: Khasawneh F.E., Sample E.C. and Madison, K.E.J. Eds., The Role of Phosphorus in Agriculture, ASA, Stoneville, 263-310.
McLaughlin, M.J., Alston, A.M. and Martin, J.K. (1988) Phosphorus cycling in wheat-pasture rotations. III Organic phosphorus turnover and phosphorus cycling. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 26, 343-353. doi:10.1071/SR9880343
?born, I., Edwards, A.C., Witter, E., Oenema, O., Ivarsson, K., Withers, P.J.A., Nilsson, S.I. and Stinzing, R.A. (2003) Element balances as a tool for sustainable nutrient management: A critical appraisal of their merits and limitations within an agronomic and environmental context. European Journal of Agronomy, 20, 211-225. doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(03)00080-7
Oenema, O., Kros, H. and De Vries, W. (2003) Approaches and uncertainties in nutrient budgets: Implications for nutrient management and environmental policies. European Journal of Agronomy, 20, 3-16. doi:10.1016/S1161-0301(03)00067-4
Rick, S., Rick, H.H. and Twilley, R. (2003) Benthic and pelagic nutrient cycling in a costal watershed influenced by river diversions (Caernarvon, Louisiana). ERF Conference Proceedings, Seattle, 14-18 September 2003.
Rankinen, K., Salo, T. and Rita, H. (2007) Simulated nitrogen leaching, nitrogen mass field balances and their correlation on four farms in south-western Finland during a period 2000-2005. Agriculture and Food Science, 16, 387-406. doi:10.2137/145960607784125348
Johnston, A. and Syers, J.K. (2006) Changes in understanding the behavior of soil and fertilizer phosphorus: Implications for their efficient use in agriculture. Proceedings of the International Fertilizer Society, York.
Hahne, H.C.H., Kroontje, W. and Lutz, J.A. (1977) Nitrogen fertilization, I. Nitrate accumulation and losses under continuous corn cropping. Soil Science Society of America, 41, 562-567. doi:10.2136/sssaj1977.03615995004100030028x
Schnug, E., Rogasik, J. and Haneklaus, S. (2003) The utilization of fertilizer phosphorus with special view of organic farming. Landbauforsch V?lkenrode (The Federal Agricultural Research Centre-Germany), 53, 1-25.
Gburek, W.J., Sharpley, A.N., Heathwaite, L. and Folmar, G.J. (2000) Phosphorus management at the watershed scale: Modification of phosphorus index. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29, 130-144. doi:10.2134/jeq2000.00472425002900010017x
Haygarth, P.M., Hepworth, L. and Jarvis, S.C. (1998) Form of phosphorus transfer and hydrological pathways from soil under grazed grassland. European Journal of Soil Science, 49, 65-72. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2389.1998.00131.x
McDowell, R.W., Sharpley, A.N. and Kleinman, P.J.A. (2002) Integrating phosphorus and nitrogen decision management at watershed scales. Journal of American Water Resources Association, 38, 479-491. doi:10.1111/j.1752-1688.2002.tb04331.x
Sharpley, A.N., Ahuja, L.R., Yamamoto, M. and Mezel, R.G. (9181) The kinetics of phosphorus desorption from soil. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 45, 493- 496. doi:10.2136/sssaj1981.03615995004500030010x
Frossard, E., Condron, L.M, Oberson, A., Sinaj, S. and Fardeau, J.C. (2000) Processes governing phosphorus availability in temperate soils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 29, 15-23. doi:10.2134/jeq2000.00472425002900010003x