the utilization of dental care services results from the interaction of biological determinants with sociocultural, family and community variables, as well as from some characteristics of health systems. the objective of this study was to assess the individual factors associated with the use of dental care services among low-income adult and elderly individuals living in the catchment area of the family health strategy, in ponta grossa, pr. the sample included 246 individuals, aged 35 years or over, who answered a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, perceived needs, and access to dental care services. data analysis was performed according to a conceptual framework based on andersen's behavioral model. non-recent use of dental care services was considered as the dependent variable in the logistic regression analysis models. there were high prevalences of self-reported oral health diseases and teeth loss. about 40% of the adults and 67% of the elderly had not made any dental visit in the past 3 years. individuals without ownership of the family home, with inadequate oral hygiene habits and who wore complete dentures had higher odds of having gone to the dentist longer ago. the fact of having a regular source of dental care was identified as a protective factor in the analysis. the conceptual framework confirmed the presence of social and psychosocial inequalities in the use of dental services among low-income adult and elderly individuals.