the study of anthropology has always tried to understand the human nature and the varieties of human culture. such ambitious task has constantly faced methodological and theoretical difficulties. the so-called social evolution theory has been seen as both prejudicial and one that lacks enough evidence, having also some racist inference due to the european hegemony then. the antidotes - rigorous fieldwork inspired in functionalism, structuralism, or "culturalism" - were also seen as contaminated by colonialist world order hierarchies. the post-modern attention to such "orientalism" in a post-colonial world has brought forth numerous papers that will help anthropologists pay due attention to such matters, which has caused a decline in both production and anthropological understanding. this conference takes in consideration these dilemmas, the current debates on "culture" and "cultural survival," and how anthropologists could proceed in such confusion era, confusion that comes as a result of globalization and the appearance of the idea of state-nation.