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Standardized Process for Differentiating Children's Pneumonia Syndrome
小儿肺炎中医辨证规范研究问题与认识

Wang Xuefeng,Dong Dan,Liang Maoxin,
王雪峰
,董丹,梁茂新

世界科学技术-中医药现代化 , 2006,
Abstract: To address the standardized process of differentiating syndrome using Chinese medicine,authors made children's pneumonia a case to underline the basic principles that one should observe in establishing such a system.The process involves a range of issues,including defining a clear logical relationship between different syndromes and associated grading,detailed methods for grading,and a standardized and objective tongue based diagnosis.Authors hope to make the study an example for the similar efforts for differentiating syndromes of other diseases.
Priorities of Clinical Effect Assessment of Traditional Chinese Medicine based on the Model of Combination of Diseases with Differentiation of Syndromes
基于“病证结合”模式的中医药临床疗效评价方法初探

Zhou Yanan,
周亚男

世界科学技术-中医药现代化 , 2012,
Abstract: The model of combination of diseases with differentiation of syndromes has a disease name in modern medicine, and adopts treatment principles and methods from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is a new model of combination of TCM and modern medicine. The clinical effect assessment with doctors' experiences of TCM is unable to be accepted internationally. Therefore, it hinders TCM development. However, to adopt standards of modern medicine is unable to reflect advantages of TCM. TCM effect assessment is based on the model of combination of diseases with differentiation of syndromes. It is an integrated method of combining objective effect with subjective effect. This model also combines short term effect with long-term effect. Hence, this model will better reflect the effectiveness and authenticity of TCM.
Clinical study by way of Combining Diseases with Differentiation of their syndromes, An Important Mode in Study on Combination of Chinese Traditional and Western Medicine
病证结合的临床研究是中西医结合研究的重要模式

Chen Keji,Song Jun,
陈可冀
,宋军

世界科学技术-中医药现代化 , 2006,
Abstract: This article shows with specific cases that the mode of clinical diagnosis, treatment and study of diseases, which combines the diagnosis in Western medicine and the differentiation of syndromes in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is an important one of clinical study in the combination of Chinese traditional and Western medicine. The authors of this article hold that such a mode is an inevitable outcome of the development of traditional Chinese medical science and that its wide application in clinical diagnosis and treatment may offer a great contribution to its development. It fully embodies the complementarity of the advantages of Chinese traditional and Western medicine and appears as a form of expression of their organic integration and a practical embodiment of their combination at a higher lever as well.
Characteristic Analysis from Excessive to Deficient Syndromes in Hepatocarcinoma Underlying miRNA Array Data  [PDF]
Qi-Long Chen,Yi-Yu Lu,Gui-Biao Zhang,Ya-Nan Song,Qian-Mei Zhou,Hui Zhang,Wei Zhang,Xin-sheng Tang,Shi-Bing Su
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/324636
Abstract: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment is regarded as a safe and effective method for many diseases. In this study, the characteristics among excessive, excessive-deficient, and deficient syndromes of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were studied using miRNA array data. We first calculated the differentially expressed miRNAs based on random module t-test and classified three TCM syndromes of HCC using SVM method. Then, the weighted miRNA-target networks were constructed for different TCM syndromes using predicted miRNA targets. Subsequently, the prioritized target genes of upexpression network of TCM syndromes were analyzed using DAVID online analysis. The results showed that there are distinctly different hierarchical cluster and network structure of TCM syndromes in HCC, but the excessive-deficient combination syndrome is extrinsically close to deficient syndrome. GO and pathway analysis revealed that the molecular mechanisms of excessive-deficient and deficient syndromes of HCC are more complex than excessive syndrome. Furthermore, although excessive-deficient and deficient syndromes have similar complex mechanisms, excessive-deficient syndrome is more involved than deficient syndrome in development of cancer process. This study suggested that miRNAs might be important mediators involved in the changing process from excessive to deficient syndromes and could be potential molecular markers for the diagnosis of TCM syndromes in HCC. 1. Introduction Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common devastating cancer types, ranking sixth in incidence, and the third leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide [1, 2]. The hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections, idiopathic cirrhosis, and alcoholic liver diseases usually are major risk factors for HCC [3]. For early diagnosis of HCC is difficult, and more than half of the HCC patients are diagnosed too late to benefit from the curative therapies. Furthermore, molecular approaches have revealed many molecular events associated with HCC, yet molecular mechanism of cell proliferation and effective biological markers for driving hepatocarcinogenesis remain largely unknown [4]. Under these circumstances, many failing patients seek to get help from complementary and alternative medicine, especially traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is an ancient Chinese medicine that evolved through at least three thousand years of uninterrupted clinical practice. The TCM treatment usually uses a traditional diagnosis method to classify the TCM syndromes, which based on clinical symptoms and signs, followed
A Discussion on Individual Difference between Polymorphism of Mononucleotides and Syndromes of Traditional Chinese Medicine
论单核苷酸多态性与中医证的个体差异

Song Zhenxing,
宋镇星

世界科学技术-中医药现代化 , 2004,
Abstract: Mononucleotide is the basic component unit of genes and its polymorphism means the difference and diversity of different individuals, which are formed due to the hereditary variation caused by the different orders of the sequence of mononucleotides between two individuals. The polymorphism of mononucleotide constitutes the main factor that determines the individual difference of human beings and is incurred by hereditary variation. The individual difference is characterized by the relative diviation of individual functions so as to keep their dynamic stability. It is a potentialy pathologic factor and the diseases caused by it have the characteristics of physique. Syndromes are based on physique while physique demonstrates itself in the form of syndromes. The characteristics of syndromes contain those of physique and syndromes usually transfer according to physique. The individual difference of syndromes is related to the polymorphism of mononucleotides and this is the best cutting point in the study on the combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine. The principles of prevention and treatment of diseases by traditional Chinese medicine can be expounded by the establishment of the science of mononucleotide group of syndromes and medicine, thus realizing the ideal of individualized medical treatment and embodying the ideology of searching for the primary cause of diseases in treatment and the prevention and treatment of future diseases.
Gene polymorphism and physical constitution theory: starting point of exploring syndromes of lung cancer  [cached]
Wan SU,Zhen-ye XU
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2010,
Abstract: Physical constitution theory is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine theory. Physical constitution is associated with the incidence, development and prognosis of diseases. Gene polymorphism is a result of the interaction between internal and external environments during the human evolution, and it is the reason for differences in biological characteristics and disease susceptibility of individuals. Current status of the research on physical constitution theory, lung cancer syndromes and gene polymorphism are summarized in this paper. Exploring lung cancer syndromes from the point of view of gene polymorphism may reveal the scientific connotation of lung cancer syndromes, and provide new evidence and method for diagnosis of lung cancer.
Study on the history of formulas corresponding to syndromes  [cached]
Xing-jiang XIONG
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2010,
Abstract: The theory of formulas corresponding to syndromes is a relatively mature and integrated method contained in the classics of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for diagnosing and treatment of diseases. The development of the theory mainly includes three stages, i.e. prototype stage before Han Dynasty, sublimation stage of late Eastern Han Dynasty and the following improving stage. People recorded what they saw and heard of during their medical activities in prototype stage. In sublimation stage, Treatise on Febrile Diseases written by Zhang Zhong-jing found out the relationship of structure-fixed prescriptions used more often with symptoms and signs. Doctors after Han Dynasty repeated and verified the truth of classical prescriptions and the theory of formulas corresponding to syndromes. They also developed and improved the theory. Based on clinical experience, and classics, it was enriched, advanced and improved by doctors after then. It could provide reference for clinical treatment through systematically hackling the theories.
Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in post-stroke depression  [cached]
Hui HAN
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2010,
Abstract: Objective: To explore the main characteristics of syndromes in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in post-stroke depression (PSD) and to provide basis for treatments with TCM herbs.Methods: According to diagnostic criteria of PSD, stroke patients and depression patients from Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital, Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine were assigned into cerebral stroke group (150 cases), depression group (151 cases) and PSD group (123 cases). Neuropsychological assessments and imaging and biochemical analyses were conducted. TCM syndrome differentiation for these diseases was performed. We also determined the characteristics of TCM syndromes of PSD, relative risk of the syndromes and their correlations with ages as well.Results: Scores of qi stagnation and blood stasis, liver qi depression, and transformation of fire due to qi stagnation in PSD group were significant higher than those in cerebral stroke group (P<0.05, P<0.01). In cerebral stroke group, majority of the patients displayed one syndrome, while in PSD and depression groups, the patients had three or more syndromes. Of these syndromes, the incidence rate of syndrome of liver qi depression complicated with transformation of fire due to qi stagnation or flaring of fire due to yin deficiency was high. The syndrome of liver qi depression occurred much more frequently in PSD group and depression group than in cerebral stroke group (P<0.05, P<0.01). The logistic regression analysis showed that the syndrome of qi stagnation and blood stasis had high relative risk to PSD. The syndrome of deficiency of heart and spleen was positively correlated with age in cerebral stroke group.Conclusion: The main TCM syndromes of PSD and depression are qi stagnation and blood stasis, liver qi depression, and transformation of fire due to qi stagnation. The syndrome of deficiency of heart and spleen is closely related to age among the stroke patients. The syndrome of qi stagnation and blood stasis serves as an independent risk factor for PSD. The more complicated the syndromes are, the more serious depression becomes.
Oral Mucosa in Systemic Diseases and Syndromes  [cached]
Algün Polat Ekinci,,Can Baykal
Turkderm , 2012,
Abstract: Spesific or nonspesific oral lesions may be seen in the course of many systemic diseases or syndromes. While some may be early signs and first clues that may be helpful in the diagnosis or may be seen as complemantary findings. In this review, spesific or nonspesific findings of common systemic diseases and relatively frequent genodermatoses will be reviewed, and some will be discussed in detail.
Application of Metabolomics in Traditional Chinese Medicine Differentiation of Deficiency and Excess Syndromes in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
Tao Wu,Ming Yang,Hua-Feng Wei,Song-Hua He,Shun-Chun Wang,Guang Ji
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/968083
Abstract: Metabolic profiling is widely used as a probe in diagnosing diseases. In this study, the metabolic profiling of urinary carbohydrates was investigated using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and multivariate statistical analysis. The kernel-based orthogonal projections to latent structures (K-OPLS) model were established and validated to distinguish between subjects with and without diabetes mellitus (DM). The model was combined with subwindow permutation analysis (SPA) in order to extract novel biomarker information. Furthermore, the K-OPLS model visually represented the alterations in urinary carbohydrate profiles of excess and deficiency syndromes in patients with diabetes. The combination of GC/MS and K-OPLS/SPA analysis allowed the urinary carbohydrate metabolic characterization of DM patients with different traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndromes, including biomarkers different from non-DM patients. The method presented in this study might be a complement or an alternative to TCM syndrome research.
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