Article citations

    Friend TH, Bushong D. 1996. Stereotypic behaviour in circus elephants and the effect of anticipation of feeding, watering and performing (Abstract only). Texas: Department of Animal Science Texas A & M University.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Is painting by elephants in zoos as enriching as we are led to believe?
  • AUTHORS: Megan English,Gisela Kaplan,Lesley J. Rogers
  • KEYWORDS: Stereotyped behaviour,Asian elephants,Enrichment,Captivity,Painting
  • JOURNAL NAME: PeerJ DOI: 10.7717/peerj.471 Jan 19, 2015
  • ABSTRACT: The relationship between the activity of painting and performance of stereotyped and other stress-related behaviour was investigated in four captive Asian elephants at Melbourne Zoo, Australia. The activity involved the elephant being instructed to paint on a canvas by its keeper in front of an audience. Painting by elephants in zoos is commonly believed to be a form of enrichment, but this assumption had not been based on any systematic research. If an activity is enriching we would expect stress-related behaviour to be reduced but we found no evidence of the elephants anticipating the painting activity and no effect on the performance of stereotyped or other stress-related behaviour either before or after the painting session. This indicates that the activity does not fulfil one of the main aims of enrichment. However, if an elephant was not selected to paint on a given day this was associated with higher levels of non-interactive behaviour, a possible indicator of stress. Behavioural observations associated with ear, eye and trunk positions during the painting session showed that the elephant’s attentiveness to the painting activity or to the keeper giving instruction varied between individuals. Apart from positive reinforcement from the keeper, the results indicated that elephants gain little enrichment from the activity of painting. Hence, the benefits of this activity appear to be limited to the aesthetic appeal of these paintings to the people viewing them.