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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12188 matches for " wheat plant "
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Régimen hídrico y ajuste osmótico en variedades cubanas de trigo (Triticum aestivum y T. durum) cultivadas en condiciones de salinidad
Argentel,Leandris; López,R. C; González,L. M; López Aguilar,R. D;
Cultivos Tropicales , 2013,
Abstract: the behavior of water and osmotic potential and osmotic adjustment in twelve cuban wheat varieties of triticum aestivum and triticum durum species crops under salinity conditions were evaluated. the plants were settled down in a hothouses under hidropony conditions at a salinity level of 8 ds.m-1, a control treatment with an electric conductivity of 0,36 ds.m-1 was mounted. the evaluations were carried out at 25 days after germination. as results a significant decrease of water potential values were obtained in most varieties in all measured organs and a significant decrease of its values was observed from roots to leaves in order to assureb water gradient. the varieties that didn’t diminish significantly their water potential showed similar behavior in the three evaluated organs, although the potential gradient was stayed. the osmotic potential diminished significantly in all varieties and its values were minor to -0,6 mpa. all varieties carried out the osmotic adjustment, being the most significant value ao=0,3 mpa in inifatrm-36, inifatrm-32, inifatrm-37 varieties. a considerable variability in stress salinity response between varieties and species for the three evaluated variables was observed.
Cropping frequency and N fertilizer effects on soil water distribution from spring to fall in the semiarid Canadian prairies  [PDF]
R. de Jong, C. A. Campbell, R. P. Zentner, P. Basnyat, B. Grant, R. Desjardins
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.23031
Abstract: In the semiarid Canadian prairies, water is the most limiting and nitrogen (N) the second most limiting factor influencing spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. The efficiency of water-and nitrogen use needs to be assessed in order to maintain this production system. The effects of cropping frequency and N fertilization on trends in soil water distribution and water use were quantified for an 18-yr (1967-1984) field experiment conducted on a medium textured Orthic Brown Chernozem (Aridic Haploboroll) in southwestern Saskatchewan, Canada. Soil water contents were measured eight times each year and plant samples were taken at five phenological growth stages. The treatments studied were continuous wheat (Cont W), summer fallow - wheat, F-(W) and summer fallow - wheat - wheat, F-W-(W) each receiving recommended rates of N and phosphorus (P) fertilizer, and (F)-W-W and (Cont W) each receiving only P fertilizer, with the examined rotation phase shown in parentheses. Soil water conserved under fallow during the summer months averaged 25 mm in the root zone, and was related to the initial water content of the soil, the amount of precipitation received, its distribution over time, and potential evapotranspiration. Under a wheat crop grown on fallow, soil water contents between spring and the five-leaf stage remained relatively constant at about 250 mm, but those under a stubble crop, with 40 mm lower spring soil water reserves, increased slightly until about the three-leaf stage. During the period of expansive crop growth (from the five-leaf to the soft dough stage) soil water was rapidly lost from all cropped phases at rates of 1.87 mm.day–1 for F-(W) (N+P), 1.23 mm.day–1 for Cont W (N+P) and 1.17 mm.day–1 for Cont W (+P). The initial loss was from the 0 - 0.3 m depth, but during the latter half of the growing season from deeper depths, although rarely from the 0.9 - 1.2 m depth. In very dry years (e.g., 1973, with 87 mm precipitation between spring and fall) summer fallow treatments lost water. In wet years with poor precipitation distribution (e.g., 1970, with 287 mm precipitation between spring and fall but 142 mm of this in one week between the three- and five-leaf stage) even cropped treatments showed evidence of leaching. The above-ground biomass water use efficiency for Cont W was 19.2 and 16.7 kg.ha–1.mm–1, respectively, for crops receiving (N+P) and P fertilizer only. Grain yield water use efficiency (8.91
Effect of Industrial Sludge Application on Soil Nitrogen and Wheat Plant Response  [PDF]
Sutapa Bose, Asim K. Bhattacharyya
Open Journal of Soil Science (OJSS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2012.22019
Abstract: Wazirpur industrial area of Delhi generates a huge quantity of sludge per day, which is highly acidic in nature (pH 2.7 to 4.4) and contains macronutrients, micronutrients as well as toxic metals. A pot-culture experiment was conducted by taking the two soils (JNU and Chhattarpur) amended with sludge (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%), pretreated with lime (0%, 0.5% and 1%). Two wheat seedlings were planted per pot containing 3 kg sludge amended or control soil and the experiment was carried out till harvesting (four months) in a glass house. Lime treatments enhanced the N content in wheat plant in almost all cases. Sludge and lime treatments enhanced dry weight in wheat plants grown in Chhattarpur soil and dry weight increased with time. Maximum growth was observed in 0.5 lime treated and 20% sludge amended soils. But we have to take an account about any kind of metal toxicity before disposal of this waste to land.
A Possible Hypoallergenic Cereal in Wheat Food Allergy and Baker’s Asthma  [PDF]
Alicia Armentia, Sara Martín, Araceli Diaz-Perales, Arantxa Palacín, Leticia Tordesillas, Manuel Herrero, Blanca Martín-Armentia
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.312A217
Abstract:

Background: Wheat is a potent allergen source and is one of the causes of baker’s asthma and food allergy. The best strategy for managing food hypersensitivity involves strict avoidance of the trigger. However, wheat is quite difficult to avoid. Several alternative strategies for the treatment of food allergy are under study. Spelt is a possible hypoallergenic crop that may be tried in patients with wheat allergy. Methods: We have evaluated the allergenic IgE hypersensitivity mediated by spelt in wheat allergic patients. Overall, 66 patients who suffered from baker’s asthma or food allergy (45 males and 21 females, mean age 28.6 ± 12.9 years) were included. We have also compared its reactivity with standard- ized extracts from wheat and with purified non-specific lipid transfer proteins from wheat (Tri a 14) and from peach (Pru p 3). Immunodetection with spelt and common bread wheat extracts (Triticum aestivum, cultivar Astral) was per- formed. Fresh wheat and spelt grain extracts were used both for oral and bronchial challenge and skin tests. Specific IgE detection to different cereals was performed using the Immuno CAP System (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden). The bronchial challenge was positive with wheat Astral in 44 (67%) patients, all of them suffered from asthma. Thirteen (29.54%) of these 44 patients had negative the challenge with spelt. The oral challenge with wheat Astral was positive in 22 (33%) patients with wheat food allergy, and the same test was positive in only in 6 of them with spelt (27.3%). The diagnostic yield (sensitivity, specificity and predictive values) of routine tests

IMPACTS OF AGROCHEMICAL TREATMENTS IN A WINTER WHEAT MONOCULTURE
Péter Jolánkai,Zoltan Toth,Tamás Kismányoky,Ildikó Farkas
Poljoprivreda (Osijek) , 2008,
Abstract: Impact of pesticides and plant nutrition on wheat crop, as well as their interaction was studied in a small plot field trial run at the experimental site on eutric cambisol type soil, in 2006 and 2007. The results obtained suggest, that treatments applied – both the increasing rate of fertilizers (N0P0K0, N40P100K100, N80P100K100, N120P100K100, N160P100K100) and the increasing intensity of pesticide application ( , herbicide, herbicide+ fungicide, herbicide+ fungicide+ insecticide) – had significant effect on the grain yield of wheat. In case of fertilizer application each N rate resulted in a further significant yield increase in the average of pesticide applications. In 2006 the minimum yield was 2.2 t ha-1, the maximum 5.5t ha-1, and the average 4.3 t ha-1. In 2007 the minimum yield was 1.00 t ha-1and the maximum 4.6 t ha-1the average 3.2 t ha-1. In accordance with the increment of the level of plant nutrition and plant protection applications a decreasing magnitude of yield increase was observed. Plant nutrition applications had a more definite effect on yield figures in comparison with that of plant protection treatments. Meteorological conditions of the crop years studied were considerably buffered by agronomic applications applied.
Influence of presowing laser radiation on spring wheat characters
Drozd D.,Szajsner H.
International Agrophysics , 1999,
Abstract: The objective of the research was to determine the effect of two methods (D and R) and 6 doses of laser treatment on 10 genotypes of spring wheat in the conditions of 2-factor field experiment. The method of randomised blocks with the use of point sowing was applied. During the vegetation the phases of development were observed in both the control plants and the plants exposed to different doses of laser rays. The fully mature plants were harvested. The plants chosen randomly from each individual field were evaluated in terms of 11 morphological characters determining the yield of a grain crop: plant height, total and productive tillering, ear length and ear density, number of spikletes, plant yield (number and weight of grain), ear yield and 1000 grain weight. The obtained results were analysed statistically. The variance analysis showed significant differences among cultivars, and the dose interaction with such morphological characters as the ear length and its density. The Duncan test was applied in order to determine homogeneous groups. The method of exposure to the laser light D (4x10-3J/cm2) significantly increased the ear length of the treated plants vs. the ear length of the control plants, whereas the method R (4x10-5J/cm2) significantly shortened the length of an ear. The D method largely lowered the value of ear density whereas the R method increased the ear density of the exposed plants vs. the same character of the control plants. The reaction of cultivars for both characters, ear length and ear density, was differentiated.
Diallel analysis for plant height in winter wheat
Ivanovska Sonja,Kraljevi?-Balali? Marija,Stojkovski Cane
Genetika , 2003, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0301011i
Abstract: The mode of inheritance and gene effect for plant height of 7x7 half diallel crosses of wheat varieties and lines was evaluated in F1 and F2 generation. The mode of inheritance, calculated for each combination separately, was different and depended on the cross combination. The absence of interallelic interaction between the genes determining the expression of plant height was concluded from the regression analysis. The regression line intercepts the Wr axis below the origin in F1 indicating overdominance over an average of all arrays. In F2 the regression line cuts the Wr axis above the origin indicating partial dominance.
COMPARISON OF DETERMINING METHODS REGARDING SELENIUM CONTENT IN WHEAT PLANT
Mihaela Monica Stanciu-Burileanu,Nineta Rizea,Constantin Luca
Annals : Food Science and Technology , 2010,
Abstract: As a metallic chemical element, selenium has received special attention from biologists because of its dual role as a trace element essential and toxic. The important part of enzymes that protect cells against the effects of free radicals that are produced during normal metabolism of oxygen. Also, selenium is essential for normal immune system and thyroid gland, The concentration of selenium in the soil, which varies by region, determines the default concentration of selenium in plants growing in the soil.The purpose of this paper is to present methods of comparison, dry oxidation at 450oC and wet digestion – digestion with acids in high concentrations at microwave system digestion, for determining selenium content from wheat samples collected from the south-eastern part of Romania, namely B r gan Plain and Central-South Dobrogea. Selenium separation and dosage from obtained extracts carry out through a selective hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. With the software SURFER, a tendency map of selenium distribution was drawn.
The Contribution of Plant in Uptaking Radio Iodine from the Soil in Zahedan City, Sistan and Blouchestan, Iran
S.A. Hosseini
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: In order to determine contribution of plant in radioiodine uptake, soil-to-plant concentration ratios of radioiodine from soil to agricultural crops are needed and so we carried out radiotracer experiments. The mean values of concentration ratio (on a wet weight basis) of radioiodine from soil to edible parts of crops in podzol were as follows: lentil, 0.054; pea, 0.012; wheat, 0.040 and red bean, 0.068. The mean values of the radioiodine concentrations in plant parts of red bean, lentil, wheat and pea (on a wet weight basis) were 4.32, 3.43, 2.64 and 1.0 kBq kg-1, respectively. We also studied the distribution of the radioiodine in the crops. There was a tendency for the concentration ratio of stem to be higher than those of root and leaves. A very high concentration ratio was found for root of red bean; because this plant was studied at a growth stage different from that of the other plants. The data obtained in this study should be useful in assessing the behavior of long-lived 129I (half life: 1.57107 year) released from nuclear fuel cycle.
Null Alleles in Gliadin Coding Loci and Wheat Allergenic Properties  [PDF]
Jacek Waga, Jerzy Zientarski, Maciej Szaleniec, Krystyna Obtu?owicz, Wojciech Dyga, Andrzej Skoczowski
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.41021
Abstract: Wheat gliadin proteins-an important, nutritional component of many food products may also act as allergenic proteins causing various, clinical symptoms of IgE-mediated food allergies. Gliadins are coded by six complex loci on the chromosomes 1A, 1B, 1D,6A, 6B and 6D of wheat genome. Each of the loci coding from a few to a dozen of polypeptides may spontaneously mutate to inactive gene variants called null alleles that do not code any proteins at all. The aim of the present work was to find out whether null alleles in some gliadin coding loci may decrease wheat allergenic properties. Six winter wheat genotypes: gliadin deletion lines (GDL) containing null alleles on 1D, 1B and 6B chromosomes and control lines (CL) containing active gene variants in all gliadin coding loci, were developed using plant breeding methods. Allergenic properties of the six analyzed hybrids were estimated by ELISA using polled sera of five patients allergic to gluten. Estimated immunoreactivity of GDLs was from 6% to 18% lower as compared with CLs. The obtained results evidenced that gliadin null alleles decrease wheat allergenic properties and may be used as parental forms for breeding of hypoallergenic wheat genotypes.
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