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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 20587 matches for " water sources "
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Gómez Marín,Ana María; Naranjo Fernández,Darío; Martínez,Andrés Alfonso; Gallego Suárez,Darío de Jesús;
Revista Facultad Nacional de Agronomía, Medellín , 2007,
Abstract: this work is a preliminary diagnosis of the actual state of the high-mountain water sources located in the juan cojo?s and el salado?s basins of the ne side of the aburrá valley; both belong to the girardota municipality (6o 20.951' n, 75o 27.199' w), between 1900 and 2500 meter above sea level, in the central mountain chain. in order to achieve this work, several samples were taken in august 10, 11, 17 and 19 of 2004. this preliminary study includes the physicochemical and mirobiological evaluation of 30 sampling points. just one of the 30 sampling points exhibited absence of microbiological pollution due to fecal and total coliforms. this fact suggests bad practices in the final disposal of domestic and farming water residuals. in the other hand, the physicochemical and the ica (water quality index) evaluation reveal that the sampled water sources exhibit typical characteristics of common low-mountain, non-polluted water sources. in other words, although pollution levels found in those water sources are not alarming, they do not exhibit the typical pollution levels found in natural high-mountain waters, as they should; even we could find some sampling points with meso-eutrophic conditions.
ArcGIS-Based Rural Drinking Water Quality Health Risk Assessment  [PDF]
Fuquan NI, Guodong LIU, Jian YE, Huazhun REN, Shangchun YANG
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2009.15042
Abstract: Aiming at the unsafe of water quality which is the core problem in rural drinking water safety, the study col-lected 221 water samples of rural drinking water sources in Ya'an and detected the concentrations of the car-cinogen and the non-carcinogen. Based on the analysis of water environment characteristics and the identifi-cation of water environment health risk source of Sichuan Ya’an City, which includes seven counties and a district and is the typical region of the western margin of Sichuan Basin, this study calculated and analyzed the carcinogenic risk (R) and non-carcinogenic risk (hazard index, HI) by applying the health risk model recommended by the US National Research Council of National Academy of Science. Then, taking advan-tage of the geo-statistic spatial analysis function of ArcGIS, this study analyzed the assessment result data (R and HI), selected the proper interpolation approach and educed R and HI spatial distribution maps of the study area. R and HI of the single factor and integrate factors were evaluated and thus obtained the following conclusions: For one thing, the cancerous risk indexes of the vast majority of water sources (about 94%) is the level of 10-7 and it belong to the safety extension. The main carcinogen in the water sources are As, Cr6+ and Pb, their concentrations are in the ranges of 0.004-0.01, 0.005, 0.01mg/l respectively and such water source mainly distributed in Yucheng district and Mingshan county. For another, the non-cancerous hazard indexes of the vast majority of water sources (about 98%) is also less than the limit value 1 and will not harm the local residents. The health risk of non-carcinogen comes mainly from As and fluoride, their concentra-tions are in the ranges of 0.004-0.01 and 0.1-4.2mg/l respectively. The results of the integrate factors health risk assessment showed that the total cancerous risk were still at the level of 10-6, only 12 drinking water source investigation sites (5%) exceeded the drinking water management standard value of EPA (the limit value is 10-6); the total non-cancerous hazard indexes are still in the range of 10-2-10-1, and will not harm the local residents either, only 18 drinking water source investigation sites (8%) exceeded the drinking water management standard value of EPA(the limit value is 1).The densely populated areas such as Yucheng Dis-trict, Tianquan County, Yingjing County and Shimian County are where the four contaminating materials, i.e., As, Cr6+, Pb and fluoride should be monitored with emphasis. Study results disclosed the health risk control indexes
Analysis of water sources in southern Zemplín
Henrieta Pavolová,Tomá? Bakalár,Lenka Bodnárová
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 2006,
Abstract: The drinking water supply for inhabitants in the southern Zemplín is provided from underground water sources. Underground sources of drinking water which are qualitatively suitable for drinking water requirements are not sufficient for inhabitants. From the point of view of underground sources existence, the southern Zemplín is not very rich in quality drinking water sources. Underground water sources are not able to cover the total water consumption. That is why the surface water source – drinking water reservoir Starina is an important source of drinking water.
Contamination Sources of Bomuruella Reservoir at Nuwara Eliya  [PDF]
Randika Anjalie Jayasinghe, Nilanthi J. G. J. Bandara, Keerthi Meepe Mohotti
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.23030
Abstract: Bomuruella Reservoir in Nuwara Eliya is an important water source in the area which indirectly contributes to the drinking water supply of the downstream people. Many agricultural lands obtain water from this reservoir and consume its water for washing and cleaning purposes. This research was focused on identifying the contamination sources of Bomuruella reservoir and to investigate the suitability of the reservoir as a drinking water source.According to the water quality analysis, BOD5 and CODMn values of most sample points did not satisfy the specified standards of Central Environmental Authority, Sri Lanka. Municipal wastewater stream and the stream from the cultivated area recorded high BOD5 levels of 7.65 mg/l and 6.55 mg/l respectively in the period of low water level of the reservoir. The stream from the cultivated area reported a high CODMn value of 595.74 mg/l during March and the stream from Kandapola plantation recorded a CODMn value of 74.44 mg/l during May. This concludes that the reservoir was contaminated with significant loads of organic wastes. Furthermore, the effluent from the leachate treatment plant recorded higher conductivity, nitrate and CODMn values which indicated that the leachate treatment plant was malfunctioning.The main cause of pollution of the reservoir is the discharge of agricultural runoff, raw sewage and wastes which include domestic, industrial and hospital waste directly into the feeder streams. It can be concluded that if the reservoir is to be used as a source of drinking water stringent measures have to be taken to control effluents.
Mesopotamian Marshlands: Salinization Problem  [PDF]
Sama AlMaarofi, Ali Douabul, Hamid Al-Saad
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.310147
Abstract: Salinization becomes a very serious problem affecting the restoration assessment of the newly re-flooded marshes of the Mesopotamian southern Iraq. From mid-1970 to early-1990, the whole marsh area was influenced by water shortage and desiccation processes. Increasing the average salinity level in the re-flooded marshes is acting versus their recovery progress and significantly affecting their aquatic biota. This study will examine the contributions of dams’ construction and desiccation on increasing the salinity level with in the Mesopotamian marshlands overtime. Water discharge and salinity concentration were monitored in the direct water inputs and outlets of the three marshlands from May 2006 to February 2007 on a monthly basis, while salinity and major ions concentrations including “Ca1+, Mg2+, Cl1-, and SO42-” were monitored in 28 re-flooded marshes from March 2005 to August 2008 on a seasonal basis. The study indicate that increasing the salinity level in the Mesopotamian marshlands is due to three reasons: 1) The overtime increasing in the salinity level of their direct water inputs, due to dams’ constructions; 2) the increase of the Arab Gulf tide via Shatt Al-Arab river due to the reduction of the water level in the outlets of the Central and Al-Hammar marshlands; and 3) the huge accumulation of salts due to desiccation.
Natural and Anthropogenic Influence in Water Quality: The Case of Linares City, NE Mexico  [PDF]
Liliana Lizárraga-Mendiola, José Návar, Alberto Blanco-Pi?ón, Ma. Del Refugio González-Sandoval, Héctor De-León-Gómez
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.511112

The aim of this research paper was to identify whether the water quality had been influenced either by the natural environment or by anthropogenic activities or both in the municipality of Linares, the second largest city of the State of Nuevo Leon, NE Mexico. The superficial water (Pablillo River) and the groundwater quality (from a fractured and a porous aquifers hydraulically interconnected) were determined by comparing their chemical composition with maximum permissible limits for water consumption and irrigation use. A hydrogeochemical modeling was performed to identify the distribution of aqueous species responsible for the presence of some dissolved or precipitated mineral species, as well as an identification of geochemical factors responsible of superficial and groundwater quality. A canonical correspondence analysis was allowed to determine if the natural environment and/or anthropogenic activities were responsible for water quality. The parameters analysed in both aquifers, as well as in the Pablillo River, were total solids, suspended solids, nitrate, and chloride; barium and mercury were present in both aquifers. As a natural influence, the predominant mineral species are as following: under-saturated anhydrite (porous aquifer), over-saturated aragonite, calcite, dolomite, and gypsum (both aquifers and Pablillo River), barite and whiterite (only in fractured aquifer). The geochemical factors responsible for natural contamination were rock dominance (fractured aquifer), and evaporation dominance (porous aquifer, Pablillo River). On the other hand, anthropogenic activities such as changes in soil use and the presence of point (old municipal landfill, pig farms, barite deposit), and diffuse (agricultural areas, septic tanks and latrines) pollution sources had influence in the presence of contaminants such as total and fecal coliforms, nitrates, chlorides, mercury and barium. Several control and remediation strategies should be taken into account to prevent this pollution in the future.

Stable Oxygen and Deuterium Isotope Techniques to Identify Plant Water Sources  [PDF]
M. Edwin, S. Lubis, I. Yani Harahap, Taufiq C. Hidayat, Y. Pangaribuan, Edy S. Sutarta, Zaharah A. Rahman, Christopher Teh, M. M. Hanafi
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.615137
Abstract: There is still very little information on the sources of water absorbed by oil palm plant. This information is very important for water management system in oil palm plantation. Thus, this study was carried out to determine current water sources absorbed by the oil palm roots using oxygen (δ18O) and deuterium isotopes (δD) techniques. Sketches of oxygen and deuterium isotope were total rainfall, throughfall, runoff, measurement at 5 soil depths (namely: 20 cm, 50 cm, 100 cm, 150 cm, and 200 cm), and oil palm stem. Results of this study showed huge variance in the values of oxygen and deuterium isotope. Based on Least Significant Difference (LSD) test, there was no significant value in the oxygen and deuterium isotope of stem water and others; however, a similar value was obtained at the depths of 0 - 20 cm and 20 - 50 cm with the stem water. This indicated that oil palm absorbed water from 0 - 50 cm depth. This result agreed with the oil palm rooting system, which has verified that the root quarter is the most active root of oil palm.
A Study on Determining the Hydropower Potential of ?ine Dam in Turkey  [PDF]
Cengiz Ko?, Y?ld?r?m Bayaz?t, Recep Bak??
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2016.52008
Abstract: This study has been conducted with the purpose of determining the hydroelectric potential that can be utilized by Cine dam which will be constructed for irrigation, overflow control and for energy production purposes on the Cine stream (which is located as an important arm of Büyük Menderes River in Turkey). The study will also compare other research conducted by various organizations. In order to determine the hydroelectric energy potential, the SIMAHPP 4 (Simulate and Assess the Feasibility of Hydropower Projects) professional software has been utilized. It has been observed that the calculated hydroelectric potential conforms to energy potential calculated by other organizations such as DSI (State Hydraulic Works). Especially the turbine power, installed power, turbine design flow rate and annual energy production values in the studies have been realized with close values to the real ones. The power plant which is planned to have an average of natural streams of the past 43 years has been designed with an annual power production capacity of 210.87 GWh/year (without regulation ratio) and with installed power of 48,144 MW along with a design flow rate of 35 m3/s. As a result, since these water structures have high costs associated with them and also since they will have to be functional for many years, it will be beneficial to use various different computational methods.
Physico-Chemical Quality of Selected Drinking Water Sources in Mbarara Municipality, Uganda  [PDF]
Ben Lukubye, Morgan Andama
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.97047
Abstract: The study assessed the physico-chemical quality of selected drinking water sources (springs, boreholes, shallow wells and rainfall) in Mbarara municipality with respect to World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines and other guidelines in light of the increased anthropogenic activities in the municipality. A total of 70 water samples were collected from purposively selected boreholes, springs, wells and rainwater in Nyamitanga, Kamukuzi and Kakoba divisions of Mbarara municipality with various human activities. The samples were analysed for physico-chemical parameters: Temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Total hardness using American Public Health Association (APHA) standard methods. The mean temperature and pH ranged between 18.07 °C - 23.45 °C and 5.74 - 7.54, respectively. The mean DO values were found to be between 4.84 and 12.86 mg/l; whereas mean BOD was within the range of 1.83 - 7.71 mg/l. The mean TDS and EC of the water samples ranged, between 33.40 - 569.20 mg/l and 29.30 - 1139.90 μS/cm respectively. Furthermore, the lowest and highest mean total hardness were 70.00 and 264.00 mg/l, respectively. The recorded mean water temperatures for each of the water sources were above the WHO threshold temperature (15 °C) which makes drinking water palatable. Boreholes in Nyamitanga and Shuhaddea Secondary Schools, spring in Kiswahili, well in Kisenyi and rainwater in Mbarara University of Science and Technology (MUST) had mean pH below the WHO minimum guideline value (6.5) hence acidic. Borehole in Nyamitanga secondary school, spring in Kisenyi, shallow well in Nyamitanga and the rainwater in MUST had mean DO values below the WHO range (10 - 12 mg/l). Borehole in Shuhaddea Secondary School and the well in Kisenyi had average BOD values above the range of European Union guideline values (3 - 6 mg/l). TDS and EC of all the water sources were below the WHO maximum guideline limits of 1000 mg/l and 1500 μs/cm respectively. Total hardness was also below the WHO harmless limit of 1000 mg/l. However rainwater in MUST was moderately soft while the other drinking water sources exhibited moderate to full total hardness. The physicochemical parameters of some of the selected water sources in Mbarara municipality have been compromised mainly by the increased human activities especially croplands, latrines, landfills, transportation, animal and municipal wastes at the vicinity of the water sources. Mbarara municipal council should therefore ensure
Evaluating Microbial Water Quality and Potential Sources of Fecal Contamination in the Musconetcong River Watershed in New Jersey, USA  [PDF]
Tsung-Ta David Hsu, Lee H. Lee, Alessandra Rossi, Ayuni Yussof, Nancy Lawler, Meiyin Wu
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2019.94023
Abstract: Microbial pathogens and indicators have contributed to major part of water quality degradation in the United States. Located in the northwestern New Jersey, the Musconetcong River has been included in the New Jersey Impaired Waters List or the 303(d) List due to high concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria. Hence, a Total Maximum Daily Load plan was established to address microbial water quality issues in the watershed. The objectives of this study were to assess the current status of microbial water quality and to determine potential sources of fecal contamination in the Musconetcong River Watershed using microbial source tracking techniques. Fifteen sampling events in total were carried out at nine sites throughout the Musconetcong River Watershed in August 2016, July and August 2017. E. coli enumeration was performed to determine the possible presence of fecal contaminations. Microbial source tracking techniques, specifically Canada goose, cow, deer, horse, and human-specific molecular markers, were used for real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in order to identify and quantify potential sources of fecal contamination. The results indicated that E. coli was found present at all nine study sites. Two of the nine sites violated the New Jersey Surface Water Quality Standards in August 2016, while all of the nine sites exceeded the standards in both July and August 2017. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and specific conductance at the study sites ranged from 13.5?C to 25.3?C, from 7.7 mg/L to 13.0 mg/L, and 278.5 μS/cm to 1335.0 μS/cm, respectively, at the time of sample collection. E. coli counts were found to be negatively correlated with temperature and specific conductance (p < 0.05) but positively correlated with dissolved oxygen, accumulated rainfall within 1 day, rainfall within 2 days, and rainfall within 3 days (p < 0.05). Higher percentage of presence of human, Canada goose and deer markers were observed at all fifteen sampling events indicating human and wildlife were the two major sources of fecal contaminations in the Musconetcong River Watershed. The study suggested applying restoration measures to reduce fecal contaminations from anthropogenic and wildlife sources in order to improve microbial water quality of the Musconetcong River. However, more frequent and strategic sampling plan is recommended to supply more comprehensive data to aid in future planning of best management efforts on controlling fecal contaminations.
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