Publish in OALib Journal
APC: Only $99
Pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC) are relatively common deformities involving the anterior chest wall, occurring in 1:1000 and 1:1500 live births, respectively. While the etiology remains an enigma, the association of pectus deformities with other skeletal abnormalities suggests that connective tissue disease may play a role in their pathogenesis. Clinical features of these deformities vary with severity, as determined by the Haller index and Backer ratio, but frequently include cardiac and respiratory abnormalities. Importantly, there exist profound psychosocial implications for children afflicted with these defofrmities, including but not limited to feelings of embarrassment and maladaptive social behaviors. These debilitating characteristics have prompted the development of novel medical and surgical corrective techniques. The correction of pectus deformities reduces the incidence of physiological complications secondary to chest wall malformation, while simultaneously improving body image and psychosocial development in the affected pediatric population. The Ravitch (open) and Nuss (minimally invasive) procedures remain the most frequently employed methods of pectus deformity repair, with no difference in overall complication rates, though individual complication rates vary with treatment. The Nuss procedure is associated with a higher rate of recurrence due to bar migration, hemothorax, and pneumothorax. Postoperative pain management is markedly more difficult in patients who have undergone Nuss repair. Patients undergoing the Ravitch procedure require less postoperative analgesia, but have longer operation times and a larger surgical scar. The cosmetic
results of the Nuss procedure and its minimally invasive nature make it preferable to the Ravitch repair. Newer treatment modalities, including the vacuum bell, magnetic mini-mover procedure (3MP), and dynamic compression bracing (DCB) appear promising, and may ultimately provide effective methods of noninvasive repair. However, these modalities suffer from a lack of extensive published evidence, and the limited number of studies currently published fail to adequately define their long-term effectiveness.
Hernia is a common word that most surgeons are familiar with. A retrospective study was planned to analyse the spectrum of abdominal wall hernias in a rural population inIndia. Majority of the patients were of 40 - 70 yrs. Male to female ratio was 7:1. Incidence of groin hernias showed an increasing trend with advancing age. Out of total 320 cases, inguinal hernias were predominating in 77.81% cases. Ventral hernias were present in about 18% cases. However, femoral hernias were rare. We concluded that spectrum of abdominal wall hernias is almost the same all over the globe despite having differences in their socioeconomic and educational status.
In this paper, we study the likelihood of chaos appearance during domain wall motion induced by electronic transfer. Considering a time-varying current density theory, we proceed to a numerical investigation of the dynamics. Using the dissipation parameter, amplitude and frequency of current density as control parameters; we show how periodic regime as well as chaotic regime can be exhibited in nanomagnetic systems. Numerical results allow setting up the periodicity and quasi-periodicity of system and chaotic phenomena occurring during magnetization switching process in nanomagnet through electronic transfer.