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Effect of Cyantraniliprole on Feeding Cessation of Q Biotype Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)  [PDF]
Rameshwar Singh Rattan, Hardik Purohit, Chandni Patel, Pankaj Suvagia, Vineet Singh, Hector Portillo, I. Billy Annan, Juan M. Alvarez
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2015.32007
Abstract: The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most devastating agricultural pests in many cropping systems worldwide. Growers rely on the use of insecticides to control this pest. However, some insecticides do not reduce the feeding of B. tabaci fast enough to prevent the direct and indirect damage produced by this insect. The effect of a new insecticide, cyantraniliprole 10OD (CyazypyrTM), on the feeding of B. tabaci adults, was studied under laboratory conditions. Cyantraniliprole 10OD is an insecticide that belongs to the IRAC Group 28 with a new mode of action for sucking insects, which provides rapid feeding cessation by impairing muscle function, resulting in reduced transmission of important insect vectored crop diseases. Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the effect of cyantraniliprole along with some other commercially available insecticides on the feeding of B. tabaci adults by measuring the excretion of honeydew as an indirect assessment of insect feeding. In these experiments, cyantraniliprole resulted in significantly higher reduction of honeydew excretion (64.0%) by Q biotype B. tabaci adults during the first 30 minutes of exposure than diafenthiuron, triazophos, acetamiprid and spiromesifen, with all treatments having no adult mortality. Observations between 1 and 48 hours after exposure indicated that cyantraniliprole had numerically higher or similar reduction in honeydew production as the other insecticides, but by 48 hours (mid and high rate) and 96 hours (high rate) of exposure, cyantraniliprole had significantly higher reduction of honeydew excretion than all other insecticides tested. Low adult mortality was observed during first 24 hours of exposure in all treatments. Cyantraniliprole resulted in numerical or significantly higher adult mortality than all other treatments at the later observation intervals (72 - 96 hours). The higher reduction in honeydew excretion by cyantraniliprole appeared to be related to faster feeding cessation during the initial hours of exposure by a combination of feeding cessation and direct mortality as the exposure time increased. These findings document significant effects of cyantraniliprole on feeding cessation in Bemisia tabaci.
DNA Gene Expression to Study Immunologic Mechanisms for the Long-Term Cure of Malaria in Babies and Children in South-Western Nigeria  [PDF]
Jerry T. Thornthwaite, Akanni E. Olufemi, Ayankunle A. Ademola, O. A. T. Alli
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2019.92006
Abstract: Malaria infection has been a very serious public health problem in Nigeria and most parts of Africa. Development of antimalarial treatments capable of providing a permanent cure for malaria has been a herculean task for drug researchers. A trial of a novel, proprietary blend formulation (TriantimalTM) in gel caps for children (n = 112) and water-soluble, 18.51 nm diameter, NutraNanoSphereTM encapsulated TriantimalTM drops for babies (19.9 Months ± 8.7 SD, n = 15) was conducted in Osogbo, Nigeria. The enrolled subjects were screened for malaria, treated with TriantimalTM for 16 consecutive days and sera collected on days 0, 5, 10, 16, 30, 60, and 730. Also, 31 of the children donated buffy coat samples for the gene expression studies when sera were collected. The children showed 90.2% parasite-free at 60 days and 85.1% at 730 days. The babies revealed 93.3% parasite-free at 60 days. These data show for the first time a real possibility for a cure of malaria in Nigeria. The one-time, low dose, extended treatment
Unilateral Fibrous ankylosis of the Temporomandibular Joint
Gaurav,Jayanthi K,Kamala R,Shivu
Indian Journal of Dental Advancements , 2012,
Abstract: Ankylosis of the Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a chronic mandibular hypomobility and is one of the commonest TMJ disorders encountered in the patients.The present case is about the history of fourteen years old fibrous ankylosis of the condyle of the TMJ with its clinical and the radiological features and the treatment modalities.
Pedestrian Analysis of Harmonic Plane Wave Propagation in 1D-Periodic Media  [PDF]
Pierre Hillion
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2011.24027
Abstract: The propagation of TE, TM harmonic plane waves impinging on a periodic multilayer film made of a stack of slabs with the same thickness but with alternate constant permittivity is analyzed. To tackle this problem, the same analysis is first performed on only one slab for harmonic plane waves, solutions of the wave equa- tion. The results obtained in this case are generalized to the stack, taking into account the boundary condi- tions generated at both ends of each slab by the jumps of permittivity. Differential electromagnetic forms are used to get the solutions of Maxwell’s equations.
Wave Propagation in Nanocomposite Materials  [PDF]
Pierre Hillion
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2010.27053
Abstract: Electromagnetic wave propagation is first analyzed in a composite material mde of chiral nano-inclusions embedded in a dielectric, with the help of Maxwell-Garnett formula for permittivity and permeability and its reciprocal for chirality. Then, this composite material appears as an homo-geneous isotropic chiral medium which may be described by the Post constitutive relations. We analyze the propagation of an harmonic plane wave in such a medium and we show that two different modes can propagate. We also discuss harmonic plane wave scattering on a semi-infinite chiral composite medium. Then, still in the frame of Maxwell-Garnett theory, the propagation of TE and TM fields is investigated in a periodic material made of nano dots immersed in a dielectric. The periodic fields are solutions of a Mathieu equation and such a material behaves as a diffraction grating.
TE, TM Fields in Toroidal Electromagnetism  [PDF]
Pierre Hillion
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.41006
Abstract:

We analyze the behaviour of TE, TM electromagnetic fields in a toroidal space through Maxwell and wave equations. Their solutions are discussed in a space endowed with a refractive index making separable the wave equations.

Integration of Aeromagnetic Data and Landsat Imagery for Structural Analysis Purposes: A Case Study in the Southern Part of Jordan  [PDF]
Hani Al Amoush, Nezar Hammouri, Mohammed Al Farajat, Elias Salameh, Abdullah Diabat, Mohammed Hassoneh, Rida Al-Adamat
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2013.53019
Abstract:

In this study, different digital format data sources including aeromagnetic and remotely sensed (Landsat ETM+) data were used for structural and tectonic interpretation of the southern part of Jordan. Aeromagnetic data were analyzed using advanced processing techniques (Spectral analysis, deconvolution). The aeromagnetic interpretation was carried out using the analytical signal, horizontal gradient, vertical gradient, Euler deconvolution. The results were improved by the study of enhanced Landsat ETM+ images and correlated with the extracted surface lineaments. Two main lineament sets are observed in the study area. The major lineaments strike NW-SE, NE-SW and the minor E-W. General coincidence of both landsat and aeromagnetic lineaments trends were observed in the study area, which reflecting the real continuous fractures in the depth. The 3D Euler solution of the study area shows that the depth of the magnetic source body ranges from hundreds of meters to more than 3000 m in the middle northern part of the study area. The combined interpretation of aeromagnetic data and Landsat ETM+, added several significant structural elements, that were previously unrecognized from the separate interpretations of aeromagnetic and remotely sensed data.

Inexpensive Method to Assess Mangroves Forest through the Use of Open Source Software and Data Available Freely in Public Domain  [PDF]
Fatwa Ramdani, Sabaruddin Rahman, Putri Setiani
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2015.71004
Abstract: Mapping and assessment of mangrove environment are crucial since the mangrove has an important role in the process of human-environment interaction. In Indonesia alone, 25% of South East Asia's mangroves available are under threat. Recognizing the availability and the ability of new sensor of Landsat data, this study investigates the use of Landsat ETM + 7 and Landsat 8, acquired in 2002 and 2013 respectively, for assessing the extent of mangroves along the South Sulawesi’s coastline. For each year, a supervised classification of the mangrove was performed using open source GRASS GIS software. The resulting maps were then compared to quantify the change. Field work activities were conducted and confirmed with the changes that occurred in the study area.? Considering the accuracy assessment, our study shows that the RGB composite color-supervised classification is better than band ratio-supervised classification methods. By linking the open source software with the Landsat data and Google Earth satellite imagery that is available in public domain, mangroves forest conversion and changes can be observed remotely. Ground truth surveys confirmed that, decreases of mangroves forest is due to the expansion of fishpond activity. This technique could potentially allow rapid, inexpensive remote monitoring of cascading, indirect effects of human activities to mangroves forest.
Analysis of the Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Recovery and Degradation Processes in Vegetated Areas Using a Time Series of Landsat TM Images (1986-2011): Central Region of Chihuahua, Mexico  [PDF]
L. C. Alatorre, E. Sánchez, J. P. Amado, L. C. Wiebe, M. E. Torres, H. L. Rojas, L. C. Bravo, E. López, E. López
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2015.52016
Abstract: This paper analyzed the temporal and spatial evolution of vegetation dynamics in various land covers in the basin of the Laguna Bustillos, Region of Cuauhtémoc, Chihuahua, Mexico. We used an NDVI time series for the months of March to April (early spring). The series was constructed from Landsat TM images for the period 1986-2011. The results show an increase of NDVI for vegetated areas, especially in conifer cover, while shrub and grassland showed a positive trend but with lower statistical significance. The increase in minimum temperatures in early spring, during the study period, was the most important factor in explaining the increase of NDVI in vegetated areas. A spatially distributed analysis shows large areas without an NDVI trend, corresponding to areas with sparse vegetation cover (degraded areas). Moreover, there are also areas with a negative trend (loss of vegetation), explained by the exploitation of trees to produce firewood which is mainly carried out by the ejidos in the region. These results help to focus human and financial resources in places where the benefit will be greatest.
Groundwater Vulnerability Mapping Using Lineament Density on Standard DRASTIC Model: Case Study in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Kurdistan Region, Iraq  [PDF]
Twana O. Abdullah, Salahalddin S. Ali, Nadhir A. Al-Ansari, Sven Knutsson
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.710057
Abstract: Groundwater is the most important source of water in the Halabja-Saidsadiq Basin. In this study, to generate a map of groundwater pollution vulnerability of the basin, the standard DRASTIC method has been applied. Due to the close relation between lineament density and groundwater flow and yield, the lineament density map was applied to the standard DRASTIC model in order to ensure accuracy towards the consideration of the effects of potential vulnerability to contamination. A lineament map is extracted from Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) satellite imagery using different techniques in remote sensing and GIS. The lineament density map illustrates that only six classes of lineament density can be identified ranged from (0 - 2.4). The lineament density map was rated and weighted and then converted to lineament index map. This index map is an additional parameter which was added to the standard DRASTIC model so as to map the modi?ed DRASTIC vulnerability in HSB. The standard vulnerability map, classified the basin into four vulnerability index zones: very low (34%), low (13%), moderate (48%) and high (5%). While the modified model classified the area into four categories as well: very low (28.75%), low (14.31%), moderate (46.91%) and high (10.04%). The results demonstrate that there is no significant variation in the rate of vulnerability. Therefore, the nitrate concentration between two different seasons (dry and wet) was analyzed from (30) water wells, considerable variations in nitrate concentration from dry to wet seasons had been noted. Consequently, it confirmed that the HSB are capable to receive the contaminant because of suitability in terms of geological and hydrogeological conditions. Based on this verification, it could be claimed that the effect of lineament density is weak on the vulnerability system in HSB, because of its low density value.
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