Abstract:
Due to the smallness of the volumes associated with the flux surfaces around the O-point of a magnetic island, the electron cyclotron power density applied inside the island for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) can exceed the threshold for non-linear effects as derived previously by Harvey et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 (1989) 426. We study the non-linear electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency through bounce-averaged, quasi-linear Fokker-Planck calculations in the magnetic geometry as created by the islands. The calculations are performed for the parameters of a typical NTM stabilization experiment on ASDEX Upgrade. A particular feature of these experiments is that the rays of the EC wave beam propagate tangential to the flux surfaces in the power deposition region. The calculations show significant non-linear effects on the ECCD efficiency, when the ECCD power is increased from its experimental value of 1 MW to a larger value of 4 MW. The nonlinear effects are largest in case of locked islands or when the magnetic island rotation period is longer than the collisional time scale. The non-linear effects result in an overall reduction of the current drive efficiency for this case with absorption of the EC power on the low field side of the electron cyclotron resonance layer. As a consequence of the non-linear effects, also the stabilizing effect of the ECCD on the island is reduced from linear expectations.

Abstract:
The structure of poloidal and toroidal flows of trace impurities in the edge pedestal of tokamak plasmas is studied analytically and numerically. Parallel momentum balance is analysed upon retaining the following terms: poloidal and toroidal centrifugal forces (inertia), pressure force, electric force, and the friction force. It is shown that, when the poloidal flow is such to produce a properly defined Mach number of order unity somewhere on the flux surface, shock fronts can form. The shock fronts can modify the predicted asymmetry structures in both the flow and the density profile along the poloidal arc. Predictions of the theory are shown against experimental observations in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak, showing good qualitative and quantitative agreement if the inertia term associated with the poloidal flow is retained.

Abstract:
A new parallel equilibrium reconstruction code for tokamak plasmas is presented. GPEC allows to compute equilibrium flux distributions sufficiently accurate to derive parameters for plasma control within 1 ms of runtime which enables real-time applications at the ASDEX Upgrade experiment (AUG) and other machines with a control cycle of at least this size. The underlying algorithms are based on the well-established offline-analysis code CLISTE, following the classical concept of iteratively solving the Grad-Shafranov equation and feeding in diagnostic signals from the experiment. The new code adopts a hybrid parallelization scheme for computing the equilibrium flux distribution and extends the fast, shared-memory-parallel Poisson solver which we have described previously by a distributed computation of the individual Poisson problems corresponding to different basis functions. The code is based entirely on open-source software components and runs on standard server hardware and software environments. The real-time capability of GPEC is demonstrated by performing an offline-computation of a sequence of 1000 flux distributions which are taken from one second of operation of a typical AUG discharge and deriving the relevant control parameters with a time resolution of a millisecond. On current server hardware the new code allows employing a grid size of 32x64 zones for the spatial discretization and up to 15 basis functions. It takes into account about 90 diagnostic signals while using up to 4 equilibrium iterations and computing more than 20 plasma-control parameters, including the computationally expensive safety-factor q on at least 4 different levels of the normalized flux.

Abstract:
Sawtooth control using steerable electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) has been demonstrated in ASDEX Upgrade plasmas with a significant population of energetic ions in the plasma core and long uncontrolled sawtooth periods. The sawtooth period is found to be minimised when the ECCD resonance is swept to just inside the q = 1 surface. By utilising ECCD inside q = 1 for sawtooth control, it is possible to avoid the triggering of neoclassical tearing modes, even at significnatly higher pressure than anticipated in the ITER baseline scenario. Operation at 25% higher normalised pressure has been achieved when only modest ECCD power is used for sawtooth control compared to identical discharges without sawtooth control when neo-classical tearing modes are triggered by the sawteeth. Modelling suggests that the destabilisation arising from the change in the local magnetic shear caused by the ECCD is able to compete with the stabilising influence of the energetic particles inside the q = 1 surface.

Abstract:
The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach - solving numerically the large scales of a turbulent system and accounting for the small-scale influence through a model - is applied to nonlinear gyrokinetic systems that are driven by a number of different microinstabilities. Comparisons between modeled, lower resolution, and higher resolution simulations are performed for an experimental measurable quantity, the electron density fluctuation spectrum. Moreover, the validation and applicability of LES is demonstrated through a series of diagnostics based on the free energetics of the system.

Abstract:
Gyrokinetic validation studies are crucial in developing confidence in the model incorporated in numerical simulations and thus improving their predictive capabilities. As one step in this direction, we simulate an ASDEX Upgrade discharge with the GENE code, and analyze various fluctuating quantities and compare them to experimental measurements. The approach taken is the following. First, linear simulations are performed in order to determine the turbulence regime. Second, the heat fluxes in nonlinear simulations are matched to experimental fluxes by varying the logarithmic ion temperature gradient within the expected experimental error bars. Finally, the dependence of various quantities with respect to the ion temperature gradient is analyzed in detail. It is found that density and temperature fluctuations can vary significantly with small changes in this parameter, thus making comparisons with experiments very sensitive to uncertainties in the experimental profiles. However, cross-phases are more robust, indicating that they are better observables for comparisons between gyrokinetic simulations and experimental measurements.

Abstract:
The reliability of Langmuir probe measurements for plasma-turbulence investigations is studied on GEMR gyro-fluid simulations and compared with results from conditionally sampled I-V characteristics as well as self-emitting probe measurements in the near scrape-off layer of the tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. In this region, simulation and experiment consistently show coherent in-phase fluctuations in density, plasma potential and also in electron temperature. Ion-saturation current measurements turn out to reproduce density fluctuations quite well. Fluctuations in the floating potential, however, are strongly influenced by temperature fluctuations and, hence, are strongly distorted compared to the actual plasma potential. These results suggest that interpreting floating as plasma-potential fluctuations while disregarding temperature effects is not justified near the separatrix of hot fusion plasmas. Here, floating potential measurements lead to corrupted results on the ExB dynamics of turbulent structures in the context of, e.g., turbulent particle and momentum transport or instability identification on the basis of density-potential phase relations.

Abstract:
A multidiagnostic approach, utilizing Langmuir probes in the midplane, X-point and divertor walls, along with Lithium beam and infrared measurements is employed to evaluate the evolution of the Scrape-off Layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade across the L-mode density transition leading to the formation of a density shoulder. The flattening of the SOL density profiles is linked to a regime change of filaments, which become faster and larger, and to a similar flattening of the $q_{\parallel}$ profile. This transition is related to the beginning of outer divertor detachment and leads to the onset of a velocity shear layer in the SOL. Experimental measurements are in good agreement with several filament models which describe the process as a transition from conduction to convection-dominated SOL perpendicular transport caused by an increase of parallel collisionality. These results could be of great relevance since both ITER and DEMO will feature detached divertors and densities largely over the transition values, and might therefore exhibit convective transport levels different to those observed typically in present-day devices.

Abstract:
We use the non-linear reduced-MHD code JOREK to study ELMs in the geometry of the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Toroidal mode numbers, poloidal filament sizes, and radial propagation speeds of filaments into the scrape-off layer are in good agreement with observations for type-I ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade. The observed instabilities exhibit a localization of perturbations which is compatible with the "solitary magnetic perturbations" recently discovered in ASDEX Upgrade [R.Wenninger et.al., Solitary Magnetic Perturbations at the ELM Onset, Nucl.Fusion, submitted]. This localization can only be described in numerical simulations with high toroidal resolution.

Abstract:
Upgraded spectroscopic hardware and an improved impurity concentration calculation allow accurate determination of boron density in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. A database of boron measurements is compared to quasilinear and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations including Coriolis and centrifugal rotational effects over a range of H-mode plasma regimes. The peaking of the measured boron profiles shows a strong anti-correlation with the plasma rotation gradient, via a relationship explained and reproduced by the theory. It is demonstrated that the rotodiffusive impurity flux driven by the rotation gradient is required for the modelling to reproduce the hollow boron profiles at higher rotation gradients. The nonlinear simulations validate the quasilinear approach, and, with the addition of perpendicular flow shear, demonstrate that each symmetry breaking mechanism that causes momentum transport also couples to rotodiffusion. At lower rotation gradients, the parallel compressive convection is required to match the most peaked boron profiles. The sensitivities of both datasets to possible errors is investigated, and quantitative agreement is found within the estimated uncertainties. The approach used can be considered a template for mitigating uncertainty in quantitative comparisons between simulation and experiment.