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Sensory Evaluation of Pigmented Flesh Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)  [PDF]
Kerrie L. Kaspar, Jean Soon Park, Charles R. Brown, Karen Weller, Carolyn F. Ross, Bridget D. Mathison, Boon P. Chew
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.41011
Abstract: Pigmented potato cultivars were ranked by a consumer panel for overall acceptance, and acceptance of aroma, appearance, and flavor. Potatoes were analyzed for total phenolics, anthocyanins and carotenoids. Concentrations of total phenolics in yellow and purple potato cultivars were 2-fold greater (P < 0.001) than in the white cultivar. Anthocyanins were low to non-detectable in white and yellow potatoes. Purple potatoes anthocyanin concentration was 20-fold greater (P < 0.001) than in yellow potatoes. Carotenoid concentrations in white and purple potatoes were similar, while yellow potatoes had a 45-fold greater carotenoids concentration compared to white and purple potatoes. Consumers ranked the aroma and appearance of white and yellow potatoes higher than purple (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in overall acceptance between the potato cultivars. These results suggest that consumers may be willing to consume pigmented potatoes, which are beneficial to health due to their higher antioxidant content.
Neuronopatia sensitiva aguda idiopática: relato de caso
Werneck, Lineu César;Correa Neto, Ylmar;Scola, Rosana Hermínia;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 1993, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X1993000300018
Abstract: pure sensory neuropathies are clinically characterized by paresthesias, sensory ataxia and areflexia without muscle weakness. we report the case of a 21 years-old female patient with acute onset of distal paresthesias, marked sensory ataxia and hyporeflexia. motor strenght was normal. sensory nerve conduction was absent and motor nerve conduction slightly decreased. csf showed 2 leucocytes/mm3 and 1.06 g/dl protein. collagen disorder and neoplasia were, not found. type 2 fiber atrophy was observed on muscle biopsy, and axonal demyelination on sural nerve biopsy. the patient was treated with prednisone. after 1.5 years she was recovered, but a minor proprioceptive deficit persisted. a revision is made on the etiology, pathophysiology and clinical manifestations of the disease.
Características sensoriais da carne de cordeiro maturada e injetada com cloreto de cálcio
Zeola,N.M.B.L.; Souza,P.A.; Souza,H.B.A.; Silva Sobrinho,A.G.;
Archivos de Zootecnia , 2010, DOI: 10.4321/S0004-05922010000400007
Abstract: sensory characteristics of morada nova lambs meat (muscles biceps femoris, longissimus and triceps brachii) submitted to effects of ageing and injection of calcium chloride were studied. the lambs were slaughtered at 25 kg of body weight. after rigor mortis, muscles were removed and submitted to treatments. the variance analysis indicated that ageing and calcium chloride didn't influence the attributes flavor (6.71) and tenderness (7.13) of meats from biceps femoris. the interaction among the factors wasn't significant for tenderness, however it was significant for flavor. ageing didn't affect colour (7.08), flavor (7.42), tenderness (7.83) and global impression (7.58) of meats from longissimus without calcium chloride, and meats with calcium chloride also didn't affect. ageing and calcium chloride factor didn't influence the attributes flavor and tenderness of meats from triceps brachii. the interaction among the factors wasn't significant for attributes flavor and tenderness. the sensory quality of morada nova lambs meat, was shown similar with relationship to evaluated attributes when it was submitted to ageing and injection with calcium chloride.
Comparison between Hydroponically and Conventionally and Organically Grown Lettuces for Taste, Odor, Visual Quality and Texture: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Matthew T. Murphy, Fannie Zhang, Yukiko K. Nakamura, Stanley T. Omaye
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.22017
Abstract: Hydroponic production of vegetables is becoming more common. In this study hydroponic lettuce, grown by a local distributor, and conventionally and organically field-grown lettuce, purchased at local retail stores were compared by descriptive analysis for taste, odor, visual quality and texture. Five lettuce varieties were compared; Romaine, Green Leaf, Red Leaf, Butter, and Common lettuce. A twenty-three member sensory panel randomly rated the lettuce using a 5 point scale or a 3 point scale for taste, odor, visual quality and texture. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for each lettuce variety with comparison between those hydroponically, organically or conventionally grown. Overall, panel members equally like the different lettuce samples. The results showed that for each of the five varieties of let-tuces, all lettuces were perceived to be equal in their sensory evaluation for locally grown hydroponic lettuce or pur-chased from local grocery outlets as organically or conventionally grown.
Influence of production processes in quality of fermented milk "Laban" in Lebanon  [PDF]
Zeineddine Mayssoun, Nassif Nadine
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.24057
Abstract: Yoghurt (Laban) is one of the most consumed food products in Lebanon. Thus its quality has given a concern. In this study, the sensory, chemical and rheological properties of commercial and traditional samples were investigated in order to characterize this fermented milk. Hence, Laban samples were collected from 14 areas in Lebanon; especially from mountainous regions and from the capital Beirut. Forty-two samples were provided by processing industry whether at small, medium, or large scale. A statistical analysis was carried out, and thus sensory and physicochemical properties were subjected to two approaches of variance analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients between attributes were also calculated. Both, the analyses of variance and correlations were conducted using SPSS 3. The physicochemical analysis and the microbiological analysis exhibit a significant effect of the date, and the manufacturing process. Also, the instrumental data showed no significant correlation between physicochemical and microbiological parameters, which indicates that they are completely independent. Moreover, the general appreciation of descriptive sensory analysis of products display that this appreciation is not dependant on the production process. It is also noticed that some sensory characteristics can be dread by instrumental measures. This research endorses the essential role of quality control for the manufacturing of yoghurt in Lebanon.
Comparison of Sensory Qualities of Geographically Paired Organic and Conventional Red Wines from the Southwestern US with Differing Total Polyphenol Concentrations: A Randomized Pilot Study  [PDF]
Keith R. Martin, Kristen K. Rasmussen
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210154
Abstract: Dietary polyphenols, or phenolic compounds, are numerous, diverse, and ubiquitous phytochemicals occurring throughout the plant kingdom. They are important components of the human diet because of their capacity to reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. In plants, polyphenols contribute to resistance to pathogens due to their potent astringency and function as phytoalexins. As a result, organic grapevines grown with reduced pesticides may be more stressed by pathogens than conventionally grown grapevines and presumably produce more polyphenols. Since polyphenols also play an important role in the sensory qualities of fruits and wines particularly involving astringency and bitterness, there may be differences that affect sensory perceptions of wine. This establishes a conundrum where dietary polyphenols are healthful but potentially unpalatable.We recruited and randomized 18 female participants (21 - 50 y) to one of five groups (3 - 4 per group). Each group evaluated the sensory qualities of a geographically paired organic (OW) and conventional wine (CW) and an artificially colored white wine placebo (PW) with significantly differing total polyphenol concentrations (TP). Participants reported for three visits (one wine per visit) where they consumed 5 ounces (150 mL) of wine over 15 minutes while completing the sensory survey. Sensory evaluations based on a Likert-type scale included visual, aroma, and taste perceptions and overall impressions (scale 0 - 10). In two wine pairs, the OW contained significantly more TP (3.49 and 5.86 g/L) than the respective CW (2.63 and 4.63 g/L). In two other wine pairs both produced by sustainable viticulture, the CW (5.23 and 8.38 g/L) contained sig- nificantly more TP than OW (4.55 and 3.70 g/L) and in one set the amounts were equivalent (4.10 and 4.17 g/L). The five PW averaged 1.26 ± 0.20 g/L. Although there were significant differences in TP content of test wines, the results indicated that no significant differences in either intensity or quality for any of the sensory qualities were detected be- tween paired OW and CW wines but both scored significantly higher than the PW, with significantly lower TP. We conclude in this pilot study that a subset of OW from the Southwestern US is perceived similarly to CW produced by the same vineyard even with significantly differing TP concentrations.
Effects of Sodium Citrate plus Sodium Diacetate and Buffered Vinegar on Quality Attributes of Enhanced Beef Top Rounds  [PDF]
Amudhan Ponrajan, Mark A. Harrison, Timothy D. Pringle, Jacob R. Segers, Bradley K. Lowe, Russell O. McKeith, Alexander M. Stelzleni
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.33051
Abstract: The effect of two antimicrobials in the enhancement solution was investigated in this study. Sensory and shelf-life characteristics were measured for beef top rounds enhanced to 110% with 0.5% sodium chloride and 0.4% sodium tripolyphosphate (CNT); CNT with a 1% solution of 80% sodium citrate plus 20% sodium diacetate (SC + D); or CNT with 2% buffered vinegar (VIN) in the final product. SC + D and VIN had less (P < 0.05) thaw and cook loss than CNT roasts, however, only VIN was rated as being juicier (P < 0.05) by a trained sensory panel. Sensory tenderness scores favored SC + D and VIN compared to CNT roasts although there was no difference for Warner-Bratzler shear force values between treatments. SC + D and VIN were rated as having slightly stronger (P < 0.05) off-flavor scores than CNT roasts, but all treatments were within threshold levels. Enhancement solution did not influence subjective panel redness or overall color over 7 days of retail display (P > 0.05). However, SC + D had lower (P < 0.05) CIE a*, b*, chroma values than VIN samples. Retail display discoloration was similar (P > 0.05) for all enhancement solutions within each day. After 7 days of retail display, SC + D retarded (P < 0.05) lipid oxidation to a greater extent than VIN or CNT samples. Sodium citrate plus sodium diacetate or buffered vinegar may be included in enhancement solutions without having a large influence on subjective color, and may aid in improving sensory tenderness.
Influence of Heat Treatment on the Quality of Functional Gluten-Free Spaghetti  [PDF]
Marcella Mastromatteo, Stefania Chillo, Mariapia Iannetti, Valentina Civica, Grazia Sepielli, Matteo Alessandro Del Nobile
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.34062
Abstract: In this study the influence of initial water content and the extent of flour thermal pretreatment on both the dough rheological properties and the sensorial attributes of maize and chickpeas based gluten-free spaghetti were assessed. Results showed that samples with the highest initial water content had the highest values of elongation and shear viscosity, therefore dough with greater extensibility was obtained. Regarding the sensorial properties of non-cooked spaghetti, the overall quality of all samples had a very positive score with the exception of the samples with the highest initial water content and the lowest steam injection time that were scored just above the acceptability threshold because of their low resistance to break. The overall quality values of the cooked dry spaghetti were found to be around the acceptability threshold with the exception of the sample with the highest initial water content that showed a value higher than the threshold due to the highest values of bulkiness and adhesiveness.
Perceptual and Sensory-Functional Consequences of Skin Care Products  [PDF]
Steve Guest, Francis McGlone, Andrew Hopkinson, Zachary A. Schendel, Kevin Blot, Greg Essick
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2013.31A010
Abstract:

Skin care products are often designed to provide tangible, physical benefits to skin health. Alleviation of dry skin and minimization of the signs of aging and post-injury scarring are important benefits targeted by many products on the market. Equally important to these benefits are favorable, desirable sensory attributes, without which products are unlikely to be used and repurchased. Other products are designed primarily to deliver sensoryor sensualbenefits (e.g., many cosmetic creams). This review considers the tactile sensory experience delivered by skin care products by examining: 1) their instrumentally-measured rheology and tribology; 2) their influence on the skin’s mechanics (e.g., compliance); 3) their implications for changing sensory function (e.g., tactile sensitivity); and 4) the possibility that skin care products alter their own perception. Products that contain chemosensates (e.g., capsaicin, menthol) or pharmaceutical actives are not considered here. Although numerous perceptual-physical links have been reported, formulation rules by which products can be designed for optimal skinfeels are currently unavailable from the existing literature. This is because of inconsistencies among studies in the perceptual attributes investigated, the physical characterizations chosen to describe the products, and analysis methods employed. To provide a robust method for designing products with beneficial and desirable skinfeels, we propose the use of 1) a consistent lexicon that fully describes the perceptual experience of any product investigated, 2) a means of recording the mechanical events at the fingertip skin that occur when a skin care product is manually applied to the body. This approach contrasts with previous instrumental (in vitro) methods that may not generalize well to product-treated human skin (in vivo). Ongoing studies that record mechanical events at the skin surface show promise in identifying realistic models of the perception of skin care products.

Nutritional, Microbiological and Sensory Characteristics of Malted Soy-Kunu Zaki: An Improved Traditional Beverage  [PDF]
Aminat O. Adelekan, Adediran E. Alamu, Ngozi U. Arisa, Yetunde O. Adebayo, Abidemi S. Dosa
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.34053
Abstract:

The nutritional, microbiological and sensory characteristics of improved kunu-zaki produced from malted cereals enriched with malted soymilk at different substitution levels (0% - 30%) were investigated. Enrichment with soymilk and malting increased the protein, amino acid, ash and moisture content of the improved kunu-zaki. Malting resulted in a decrease in carbohydrate and fat content. The protein content of the malted samples ranged between 2.79% and 3.82% while that of unmalted was 2.36%. There was decrease in the concentration of phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor after malting but the concentration increased as soymilk was added. Microbiological analyses showed that microbial load of samples increased with the addition of soymilk. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the sensory attributes, acceptability decrease with increase in soymilk addition because of the beany flavor.

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