oalib

OALib Journal期刊

ISSN: 2333-9721

费用:99美元

投稿

时间不限

2018 ( 29 )

2017 ( 51 )

2016 ( 60 )

2015 ( 69 )

自定义范围…

匹配条件: “safety” ,找到相关结果约3154条。
列表显示的所有文章,均可免费获取
第1页/共3154条
每页显示
Effective Regulation and Level of Awareness: An Exposé of the Nigeria’s Construction Industry  [PDF]
Ikechukwu A. Diugwu, Dorothy L. Baba, Ashem E. Egila
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2012.24018
Abstract: The preparedness of any organization to minimize the frequency and severity of work related accidents, ill-health, and damage to property is demonstrated by the adoption of a health and safety management system. By its nature, a health and safety management system through its provisions and demands, not only highlights the impact of poor health and safety standards on organizational performance but also encourages greater awareness of health and safety issues and responsibilities. Quite unfortunately, in Nigeria (as in many developing economies) statutory regulation, capable of ensuring the adoption and implementation of health and safety management systems by organizations, seems inadequate or ineffective. The impact of this, as demonstrated by the outcome of survey and literature review, is a general lack of awareness on important health and safety issues among Nigerian construction workers. Equally, there is an inability and or unwillingness by organizations to pay adequate attention to health and safety management. Consequently, the overall health and safety standard, operational capability and corporate image of Nigeria’s construction industry have been affected.
Safety Climates in Construction Industry: Understanding the Role of Construction Sites and Workgroups  [PDF]
Sílvia Silva, Adriana Araújo, Dário Costa, J. L. Meliá
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2013.34010
Abstract:

Studies of safety climate in construction revealed a significant positive association between safety climate and various aspects of occupational health and safety. The mechanisms through which this impact operates are still unclear and safety climate is usually studied without considering the complexity of this industry (companies, worksites and groups). The aim of this research is to analyze to what extend there are differences between construction sites and to explore the relations between construction sites’ safety climate and workers’ safety response and to examine how this influence occur considering the workgroups. The safety climate was evaluated using a reduced version of the questionnaire that is a part of Battery HERC (Herramienta para evaluacion riesgos comportamentales). The data were collected in a Portuguese construction company (5 construction sites; including sub-contractors) comprising 213 workers. Differences between construction sites safety climate were found, suggesting the prevalence of safety sub-climates. The workgroup safety climate played a determinant role on workers’ safety response in subcontracted workgroups and it is an important mechanism through which the principal contractor can influence subcontractors’ safety response. Designers of preven- tion and training programs for accidents prevention should include specific contents in order to improve supervisory safety leadership and workgroup safety responses.

Analysis of the Multi-Relationships and Their Structures for Safety Culture  [PDF]
Teh-Sheng Su, Pei-Ru Lin, Yi-Liang Shu, Jo-Ming Tseng, Chen-Shan Kao
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2012.23012
Abstract: Studies on safety culture and safety performance have been increasing recently and several proposed models have been developed and evaluated to identify their key dimensions. However, many studies focus more on measuring the scales of the safety culture and safety performance dimensions. This study aims to seek a deeper understanding of the overall structures of safety culture, safety performance and their relationships by using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis along with the structural equation modeling (SEM) statistical technique, because the above-mentioned concepts and technique have been seldom employed and are uncommon in manufacturing companies, in terms of Tai-wan. We first carry out a thorough literature review and propose an integrated model of safety culture and safety per-formance with eight dimensions and four dimensions, respectively. We then state a series of hypotheses and test the proposed model on a sample of 370 valid data from three manufacturing companies in Taiwan. Results show that the third-order safety culture associated with second-order safety performance model turns out to be the desired model, where both the measured variables and latent variables have good reliability. The proposed model meets many criteria of the goodness of fit as well.
The Fukushima Nuclear Accident: Insights on the Safety Aspects  [PDF]
Zieli Dutra Thomé, Rogério dos Santos Gomes, Fernando Carvalho da Silva, Sergio de Oliveira Vellozo
World Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology (WJNST) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjnst.2015.53017
Abstract: The Fukushima nuclear accident has generated doubts and questions which need to be properly understood and addressed. This scientific attitude became necessary to allow the use of the nuclear technology for electricity generation around the world. The nuclear stakeholders are working to obtain these technical answers for the Fukushima questions. We believe that, such challenges will be, certainly, implemented in the next reactor generation, following the technological evolution. The purpose of this work is to perform a critical analysis of the Fukushima nuclear accident, focusing at the common cause failures produced by tsunami, as well as an analysis of the main redundant systems. This work also assesses the mitigative procedures and the subsequent consequences of such actions, which gave results below expectations to avoid the progression of the accident, discussing the concept of sharing of structures, systems and components at multi-unit nuclear power plants, and its eventual inappropriate use in safety-related devices which can compromise the nuclear safety, as well as its consequent impact on the Fukushima accident scenario. The lessons from Fukushima must be better learned, aiming the development of new procedures and new safety systems. Thus, the nuclear technology could reach a higher evolution level in its safety requirements. This knowledge will establish a conceptual milestone in the safety system design, becoming necessary the review of the current acceptance criteria of safety-related systems.
The Culture of Incident Reporting and Feedback: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Hospital Setting  [PDF]
Anne Vifladt, Bjoerg O. Simonsen, Stian Lydersen, Per G. Farup
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.511111
Abstract: A safety culture where incidents have been reported and feedback given is essential to detect and understand system failures. The aims of this study were to examine the culture of incident reporting and feedback (the incident culture) in a hospital setting, and the associations between the incident culture and other dimensions of the safety culture. A cross-sectional study was carried out with the instrument Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) within 16 units in six somatic hospitals at a Norwegian Hospital Trust. Units with identical specialities across the hospitals constitute a clinic. HSOPSC measures the health care personnel’s perception of the safety culture, seven safety dimensions at the unit level, three at the hospital level and four outcome measures. The outcome measures “Frequency of event reporting” and the dimension “Feedback and communication about error” were combined into the variable “incident culture”, score 1 - 5. A positive score was defined as ≥ 4.0. This study included 631 health care personnel. The mean score for the incident culture was 3.10 (SD 0.65) with significant differences between the clinics, and the hospitals. The strongest predictors for the incident culture were the dimensions “Communication openness” (linear regression slope B 0.470; 95% CI 0.398 to 0.543; p < 0.001), “Manager expectations and actions promoting safety” (B 0.378; 95% CI 0.304 to 0.453; p < 0.001), “Organisational learning and continuous improvement” (B 0.374; 95% CI 0.293 to 0.455; p < 0.001) and “Teamwork across hospital units” (B 0.360; 95% CI 0.261 to 0.459; p < 0.001). In this study, the incident culture needed improvements. To improve the incident culture, the attention may be directed towards developing and maintaining a culture of open communication, management that promotes safety, and a learning organisation and teamwork between the units.
Safety and Feasibility of Topical Application of Limonene as a Massage Oil to the Breast  [PDF]
Jessica A. Miller, Patricia A. Thompson, Iman A. Hakim, Ana Maria Lopez, Cynthia A. Thomson, Wade Chew, Chiu-Hsieh Hsu, H.-H. Sherry Chow
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2012.325094
Abstract: Background: Limonene, a major component in citrus oil, has demonstrated anti-cancer effects in preclinical mammary cancer models. However, the effective oral dose translates to a human dose that may not be feasible for chronic dosing. We proposed to evaluate topical application of limonene to the breast as an alternative dosing strategy. Materials and Methods: We conducted a mouse disposition study to determine whether limonene would be bioavailable in the mammary tissue after topical application. SKH-1 mice received topical or oral administration of limonene in the form of orange oil every day for 4 weeks. Plasma and mammary pads were collected 4 hrs after the final dosing. We also conducted an exploratory clinical study to evaluate the safety and feasibility of topically applied limonene in the form of orange oil to the breast. Healthy women were recruited to apply orange oil containing massage oil to their breasts daily for four weeks. Safety and feasibility were assessed by reported adverse events, clinical labs, and usage compliance. Pre and post-intervention nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and plasma were collected for limonene concentration determination. Results: The mouse disposition study showed that topical and oral orange oil administration resulted in similar mammary tissue disposition of limonene with no clinical signs of toxicity. In the clinical study, the topical application of limonene containing massage oil to the breast was found to be safe with high levels of usage compliance for daily application, although NAF and plasma limonene concentrations were not significantly changed after the massage oil application. Conclusions: Our studies showed that limonene is bioavailable in mammary tissue after topical orange oil application in mice and this novel route of administration to the breast is safe and feasible in healthy women.
Experience in Using a PFW System – A Case Study  [PDF]
Derrick Black, Elizabeth Hull, Ken Jackson
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.35058
Abstract: A safety document management system, in a domain such as the power industry, is known as a Permit for Work (PFW) solution. It is based on the issues prevalent in an environment and on the methods available to eliminate potential safety issues. This paper considers how a PFW system should be implemented. It does so by identifying an appropriate case study from a domain not usually associated with PFW systems, and applying a suitable process, +PFW.
Patient safety practices and medical errors: Perception of health care providers at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia  [PDF]
Tsion Assefa, Mirkuzie Woldie, Shimeles Ololo, Kifle Woldemichael
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2012.22024
Abstract: Background: Even though evidences are limited in developing countries, the probability of patients being harmed in hospitals when receiving care might be much greater than that of the industrialized nations. Thus, aim of this study was to assess patient safety practice and the perceived prevalence of medical errors at Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted during June, July and August 2010 in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Patient safety grade and the perceived prevalence of medical errors were computed descriptively. Then, the effect of various independent variables on patient safety grade was assessed using multiple linear regressions analysis. Result: The overall patient safety grade as rated by the participants was excellent (7.2%), very good (20.7%), acceptable (36.0%), poor (30.0%) and failing (6.4%). Complications related to anesthesia occurred sometimes, rarely and never according to 30.8%, 43% and 15.8% of the respondents, respectively. Death in low mortality patients was reported to occur most of the time by 10.4% of the respondents. In addition, failure to rescue, infection due to medical care, postoperative hemorrhage, postoperative sepsis, birth injury to the neonate, obstetric trauma to the mother were reported to happened. Supervisor expectation and actions promoting patient safety (p < 0.001), and communication openness and feedback about errors (p = 0.002) had positive correlation with patient safety grade. Conclusion: this study indicated that poor patient safety practice and potentially preventable medical errors in the hospital.
Developing a Composite Index of Child Road Safety in a Municipality  [PDF]
Victoria Gitelman, Sharon Levi, Etti Doveh, Liri Endy-Findling
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2013.32003
Abstract:

Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of injury-related death and disability in children in Israel. The use of safety performance indicators (SPIs) is common today for benchmarking road safety performance and monitoring of trends. This study aimed to develop a set of indicators which would assist in diagnosis and promotion of child road safety in urban communities. A wide set of basic indicators was defined with an interdisciplinary team of experts. A pilot study was undertaken in four municipalities, in which the data for five safety domains: injury, background characteristics, road user behaviors, attitudes, policy and managementwere collected and basic SPIs were estimated. To combine the basic indicators into a composite index, for each domain, a statistical model based on common Factor Analysis was applied. The Factor Analysis demonstrated a reasonable way of aggregating the indicators meaning, for each domain considered, and produced the tools for municipalities comparison. It was concluded that the child road safety indicators and composite indices developed are applicable for measuring and monitoring of municipalities road safety level and practices. National authorities may use the tools developed to compare urban communities at a regional or country level.

Innovative Food Safety Strategies in a Pioneering Hotel  [PDF]
Su-Ling Wu
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2013.410137
Abstract:

A case study approach was adopted to identify the innovative food safety strategies in place at one pioneering hotel that had voluntarily implemented food safety control. An investigation of food safety strategies and the reasons for their implementation in the hotel foodservice were carried out using multiple sources of data, including interviews with key decision makers in the hotel, observations of the business environment, and a review of documentation. The findings suggest that not only food control strategies but also marketing and corporate strategies are important when addressing the problems of food safety. The findings of this study also demonstrate the relationship between motivating factors and food safety strategies. Analysis of the interviews indicates that a hotel’s food safety strategies depend significantly on the attitude of senior management, the firm’s capability, and corporate image.

第1页/共3154条
每页显示


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.