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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 398 matches for " rina BILAN "
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ROMANIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS’ INDEBTEDNESS – A MACROECONOMIC AND TERRITORIAL APPROACH
Florin OPREA,rina BILAN
Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi : Economic Sciences Series , 2011,
Abstract: Financing local activities at an appropriate level by reference to local communities’ development needs cannot be left, especially where these needs are major, solely to the account of ordinary resources, but loan resources must complete them. However, the existence of a legal framework allowing for local governments to borrow and the fulfillment of the legal requirements do not guarantee that local communities will make use of loans to raise additional resources and finance their development needs, as a number of factors interfere. On this basis, we intend to analyze Romanian local governments’ indebtedness as well as the particular forms that it takes, both at macroeconomic level, aiming to assess the overall debt of all Romanian local governments and from a territorial perspective, aiming to highlight the discrepancies in promoting local indebtedness for various types of local communities. Our approach combines the quantitative analysis, based on processed data from the Ministry of Public Finance, with the analysis of the involved qualitative issues. Our main conclusion is that until now the local indebtedness potential has not been exploited enough to make its contribution to the financing of local investments and the development of local communities, the main driving factors being the low involvement of local governments, the limited local economic base and financial potential, the fluctuating and perfectible legal framework but also the national and international social and economic conditions.
Effect of Educational Plan on Adherence Rate among Children with Persistent Asthma
Bilan Nemat
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: This study was conducted to survey the effect of education and regular follow up on adherence rate of children with mild to moderate persistent asthma. In a semi-experimental study (before and after), two groups of children with mild to moderate persistent asthma, referred to outpatient clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were compared. First group included 200 asthmatic children who were treated at least for duration of one year by conventional method. The second group included 300 patients at the same age and severity of disease that were treated at least one year by a comprehensive plan of education and regular follow up visits as well. Data were analyzed by Chi-square and p<0.05 was considered as significant difference. Findings indicate that in first group 100 (50%) and second group 295 (84/3%) had adherence rate more than 50% (p = 0.00). Considering adherence rate of ≥50% there was significant difference between two groups with mild persistent asthma (p = 0.00). Present findings indicate that education and scheduled follow up can result in higher degree of adherence.
Risk Factors of Asthma in 2-8 Years Old Children Referred to Out-Patient Clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Nemat Bilan,Shamsi Ghaffari
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small airways that results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. As mentioned in many reports from different parts of the world, the prevalence of asthma is increasing during recent years, therefore we planned this study to investigate its predisposing factors, clarifying its epidemiology in our ethnic and geographical territory. In a case-control study on 360 children in the age range from 2-8 years, we compared the presence of asthma risk factors between 2 groups including 120 asthmatic cases and 240 non-asthmatic controls. Some risk factors were significantly more prevalent in asthmatics than controls, these include: positive family history of asthma (p = 0.003, OR = 7.5), non-breastfed (p = 0.001, OR = 5.4), low birth weight (p<0.001, OR = 3.54), passive smoking (p = 0.001, OR = 2.36) and rhinitis (p = 0.005, OR = 2.05). The most important risk factors for development of asthma were found to be positive history of asthma in first degree family, being non-breastfed and low birth weight in order of decreasing significance.
Association of Asthma and Epilepsy
Nemat Bilan,Shamsi Ghaffari
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Acute exacerbation of asthma can induce respiratory alkalosis, which not only decreases serum level of ionized calcium but also results in cerebral vasoconstriction. Several studies have cleared that respiratory alkalosis and decreased CO2-pressure in blood (hypocapnia) can increase neuronal excitability and its epileptogenic activity. This situation may also increase CNS dopamine level and risk of convulsion, therefore we planned this study to assess the association of asthma and epilepsy. In a cross-sectional and analytical study, 800 asthmatic children, who were referred to Specialists` Clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) from January 2004-2008 underwent surveillance for epilepsy; then resultant data analyzed by Z-test for a ratio. About 26/800 children found to be affected simultaneously by asthma and epilepsy, including 15 males and 11 females whose age average was 6 2.1 years (95% CI = 3.5-6.7). The prevalence of epilepsy in asthmatic patients was higher than general population and this difference was statistically meaningful (p<0.05). According to prevalence of epilepsy, which is about 1% in general population and 3.25% in our asthmatic patients and because of possible hypocapnia and resultant respiratory alkalosis during asthma exacerbations, the probability of recurrent convulsive attacks in those, who have simultaneous asthma and epilepsy will be much higher and needs special care and treatment.
THE LEGAL INDEBTEDNESS CAPACITY OF ROMANIAN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS - THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL EVIDENCES
Bilan Irina,Oprea Florin
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2011,
Abstract: The factual, not only formal capacity of local governments to appeal to borrowed resources is, considering the current conditions, a prerequisite for ensuring economic and social development of local communities. In this paper we intend to position the main theoretical and empirical evidences on local governments indebtedness capacity, mainly focusing on its sizing according to Romanian regulatory framework. With respect to previous research, the issue approached is one of great interest as it has not been, in the Romanian literature on local public finances, subject to a separate analysis of proportions. The undertaken analysis comprises a quantitative dimension, based on processed data from the consolidated general budget of Romanian local governments for 2007-2009, in permanent conjunction with monitoring and analysis of the involved qualitative aspects. To ensure the relevance of the research results, the analysis undertaken refers to the legal framework in function throughout the considered period of time, without involving the legislative changes operated in mid-2010. The main conclusions drawn from our analysis indicate that, considering the current Romanian socio-economic environment, under the impact of specific factors of different nature, the legal indebtedness capacity is far from being well valued, thus bringing its benefits to local communities development. This conclusion is valid from a global perspective as well as for different types of local communities. This appears to be inconsistent with the permanently claimed need to fund important local public investments, mainly in infrastructure, indicating, despite the high legal indebtedness capacity, the lack of factual access to borrowed resources. We suggest, therefore, to introduce the concept of effective indebtedness capacity, the result of a particularized correlation for different local governments between legal indebtedness capacity and the manifestation of several factors with specific action and we intend to contribute, by future research, to its measurement.
Association of Asthma and Epilepsy
Nemat Bilan,Shamsi Ghaffari
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Acute exacerbation of asthma can induce respiratory alkalosis, which not only decreases serum level of ionized calcium but also results in cerebral vasoconstriction. Several studies have cleared that respiratory alkalosis and decreased CO2-pressure in blood (hypocapnia) can increase neuronal excitability and its epileptogenic activity. This situation may also increase CNS dopamine level and risk of convulsion, therefore we planned this study to assess the association of asthma and epilepsy. In a cross-sectional and analytical study, 800 asthmatic children, who were referred to Specialists` Clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) from January 2004-2008 underwent surveillance for epilepsy; then resultant data analyzed by Z-test for a ratio. About 26/800 children found to be affected simultaneously by asthma and epilepsy, including 15 males and 11 females whose age average was 6±2.1 years (95% CI = 3.5-6.7). The prevalence of epilepsy in asthmatic patients was higher than general population and this difference was statistically meaningful (p<0.05). According to prevalence of epilepsy, which is about 1% in general population and 3.25% in our asthmatic patients and because of possible hypocapnia and resultant respiratory alkalosis during asthma exacerbations, the probability of recurrent convulsive attacks in those, who have simultaneous asthma and epilepsy will be much higher and needs special care and treatment.
Risk Factors of Asthma in 2-8 Years Old Children Referred to Out-Patient Clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences
Nemat Bilan,Shamsi Ghaffari
Research Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the small airways that results from a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. As mentioned in many reports from different parts of the world, the prevalence of asthma is increasing during recent years, therefore we planned this study to investigate its predisposing factors, clarifying its epidemiology in our ethnic and geographical territory. In a case-control study on 360 children in the age range from 2-8 years, we compared the presence of asthma risk factors between 2 groups including 120 asthmatic cases and 240 non-asthmatic controls. Some risk factors were significantly more prevalent in asthmatics than controls, these include: positive family history of asthma (p = 0.003, OR = 7.5), non-breastfed (p = 0.001, OR = 5.4), low birth weight (p<0.001, OR = 3.54), passive smoking (p = 0.001, OR = 2.36) and rhinitis (p = 0.005, OR = 2.05). The most important risk factors for development of asthma were found to be positive history of asthma in first degree family, being non-breastfed and low birth weight in order of decreasing significance.
THE MONETARY POLICY AND THE FINANCIAL STABILITY IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION
Angela ROMAN,Irina BILAN
Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi : Economic Sciences Series , 2009,
Abstract: It is unanimously acknowledged at an international level that, for the long term, the stability of prices is the fundamental objective of the monetary policy of central banks. The international financial crises that have occurred in the context of financial globalization have determined central banks from various countries to give special attention to the promotion of financial stability. This attitude is due to the fact that a stable and solid financial system provides the prerequisites for the implementation of an efficient monetary policy, which contributes to the achievement of the fundamental objective, that of ensuring the stability of the prices. This paper aims at emphasizing the relationship between the stability of the prices and financial stability in the context of financial globalization, and the extent to which central banks can, via the monetary policy they promote, can contribute to the achievement of these objectives.
INFLATIONARY EFFECTS OF BUDGET DEFICIT FINANCING IN CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIES
ANGELA BOARIU,IRINA BILAN
Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi : Economic Sciences Series , 2007,
Abstract: This paper tries to analyse the relations existing between the different ways of financing budget deficit and inflation, underlining the terms of these relations and the involved social and economic effects. An important source of inflation is considered to be the financing of budget deficits by direct appeal to the central bank’s resources, nowadays forbidden by law in most countries for its negative impact. Nevertheless, inflation can also appear as a consequence of debt financing of the budget deficit, considered acceptable in the contemporary society, when it indirectly involves the increase in the amount of money available to the economy above what’s absolutely necessary.
FACTORS GENERATING PUBLIC INDEBTEDNESS IN DEVELOPED ECONOMIES
Angela ROMAN,Irina BILAN
Scientific Annals of the Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi : Economic Sciences Series , 2008,
Abstract: This paper aims at pointing out the factors that have led to the accumulation of public debt in the countries currently considered as developed. It first analyzes the dynamics of public debt in industrialized countries, putting into light that its level has always been high. Establishing that a direct correlation exists between the evolution of the budget balance and public debt, it afterwards emphasizes the causes of budget deficits and, implicitly, of public debt by minutely analyzing the particularities concerning the level and structure of budget revenues and expenditures in developed countries.
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