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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5282 matches for " reproductive aging "
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Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause
Forman MR, Mangini LD, Thelus-Jean R, Hayward MD
Adolescent Health, Medicine and Therapeutics , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S15946
Abstract: ourse origins of the ages at menarche and menopause Review (1325) Total Article Views Authors: Forman MR, Mangini LD, Thelus-Jean R, Hayward MD Published Date January 2013 Volume 2013:4 Pages 1 - 21 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AHMT.S15946 Received: 30 August 2012 Accepted: 26 October 2012 Published: 18 January 2013 Michele R Forman,1 Lauren D Mangini,1 Rosenie Thelus-Jean,2 Mark D Hayward3 1Nutritional Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 2Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army, Washington DC, 3Population Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA Abstract: A woman's age at menarche (first menstrual period) and her age at menopause are the alpha and omega of her reproductive years. The timing of these milestones is critical for a woman's health trajectory over her lifespan, as they are indicators of ovarian function and aging. Both early and late timing of either event are associated with risk for adverse health and psychosocial outcomes. Thus, the search for a relationship between age at menarche and menopause has consequences for chronic disease prevention and implications for public health. This article is a review of evidence from the fields of developmental biology, epidemiology, nutrition, demography, sociology, and psychology that examine the menarche–menopause connection. Trends in ages at menarche and menopause worldwide and in subpopulations are presented; however, challenges exist in constructing trends. Among 36 studies that examine the association between the two sentinel events, ten reported a significant direct association, two an inverse association, and the remainder had null findings. Multiple factors, including hormonal and environmental exposures, socioeconomic status, and stress throughout the life course are hypothesized to influence the tempo of growth, including body size and height, development, menarche, menopause, and the aging process in women. The complexity of these factors and the pathways related to their effects on each sentinel event complicate evaluation of the relationship between menarche and menopause. Limitations of past investigations are discussed, including lack of comparability of socioeconomic status indicators and biomarker use across studies, while minority group differences have received scant attention. Suggestions for future directions are proposed. As research across endocrinology, epidemiology, and the social sciences becomes more integrated, the confluence of perspectives will yield a richer understanding of the influences on the tempo of a woman's reproductive life cycle as well as accelerate progress toward more sophisticated preventive strategies for chronic disease.
Mortalidade por cancer de mama em mulheres na Baixada Santista, 1980 a 1999
Zago,Augusto; Pereira,Luiz A A; Braga,Alfésio L F; Bousquat,Aylene;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102005000400019
Abstract: objective: to analyze time and geographical trends of breast cancer mortality. methods: annual mortality rates per 100,000 female inhabitants aged 20 to 59 years for the baixada santista metropolitan area, the city and state of s?o paulo and brazil, from 1980 to 1999, were standardized by age groups and analyzed. the analyses included regression models to estimate and compare time trends of each area.? results: increasing mortality rate trends were observed for all areas. however, intrametropolitan variations have higher baselines and time trends than the other areas. santos had standardized mortality rates between 25 and 35 per 100,000 women, which were the highest in the study. differences between santos rates and the rates of other cities included in the study were statistically significant (p<0.001). the cities of s?o vicente, cubat?o and peruíbe of the baixada santista metropolitan area also showed increased mortality rates trends and higher rates than those for the state of s?o paulo and brazil. conclusions: a similar increasing trend in mortality rates was observed in all cities of the study area and higher rates were seen in santos. there is a need for further studies in order to identify the determinant conditions for this trend.
Sex and gonadal hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease: what is relevant to the human condition?
Dubal Dena B,Broestl Lauren,Worden Kurtresha
Biology of Sex Differences , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2042-6410-3-24
Abstract: Biologic sex and gonadal hormones matter in human aging and diseases of aging such as Alzheimer’s – and the importance of studying their influences relates directly to human health. The goal of this article is to review the literature to date on sex and hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with an exclusive focus on interpreting the relevance of findings to the human condition. To this end, we highlight advances in AD and in sex and hormone biology, discuss what these advances mean for merging the two fields, review the current mouse model literature, raise major unresolved questions, and offer a research framework that incorporates human reproductive aging for future studies aimed at translational discoveries in this important area. Unraveling human relevant pathways in sex and hormone-based biology may ultimately pave the way to novel and urgently needed treatments for AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Benign ovarian cysts in reproductive-age women undergoing assisted reproductive technology treatment  [PDF]
Guy Rofe, Ron Auslender, Martha Dirnfeld
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.37A1005

The scope of this review is to focus on the management of benign ovarian cyst in the reproductive-age group of women undergoing ART. Ovarian cysts are a common occurrence in this patient population. The differential diagnosis includes functional cysts, dermoid cysts, endometrioma. The appropriate evaluation includes medical history and physical examination, laboratory tests and imaging. The treatment options include conservative follow-up, medical treatment and surgery. This review will explore the differential diagnosis, appropriate work-up and treatment options to the various cyst types encountered.

El descenso de la fecundidad en Cuba: de la Primera a la segunda transición demográfica The decrease of fertility in Cuba: from the first to the second transition
Juan Carlos Alfonso Fraga
Revista Cubana de Salud Pública , 2006,
Abstract: La fecundidad en Cuba es la variable que más ha incidido en el crecimiento de su población. La contracción experimentada por esta a partir de mediados de la década de los a os sesenta del siglo pasado continúa en la actualidad, constituye un ejemplo de una interrelación de población y desarrollo, en donde los avances educacionales, en salud en general y reproductiva en específico, en seguridad y asistencia social y sobre todo en los profundos cambios en la condición de la mujer, explican un proceso que resulta inédito en el contexto de los países en desarrollo y en particular en nuestra región, en donde todavía ningún país ha descendido de los niveles de reemplazo en su transición de la fecundidad (menos de una hija por mujer). Para algunos, ello constituye un patrón de comportamiento muy avanzado que delinea algunos elementos de lo que se ha dado en llamar la segunda transición demográfica pero que a su vez ha estado acompa ada en algunos a os de una alta fecundidad en la adolescencia, una estructura de métodos anticonceptivos no del todo favorable, una recurrencia a la interrupción del embarazo más alta de lo deseado, y otros aspectos, que de conjunto se analizan en este trabajo, recorriendo las principales etapas de ese descenso y comportamiento, su impacto en el bajo crecimiento y creciente envejecimiento poblacional y las perspectivas de esta evolución que tienden a intensificarlo Ferltility in Cuba is the variable inciding the most on the increase of its population. The reduction experienced by it since the middle of the 1960s persists at present and it is an example of an interrelation between population and development, where the advances attained in education, in health, in general, and in reproductive health, in particular, and in social security and assistance, together with the deep changes occurred in women's conditions, explain a new process in the context of the developing countries and, specially, in our region, where no country has descended from the replacement levels in its transition of fertility (less than a child per woman). For some of them, it is a very advanced pattern of behavior that outlines some elements of what has been called the second demographic transition, which has also been accompanied for some years with a high fertility in the adolescence, a structure of contraceptive methods that is not completely favorable, a reccurrence of abortion above the desired, and other aspects, that are analyzed as a whole in this paper. The main stages of this decrease and behavior , their impact on the low growth and on the increasing
Falls and Physical Performance among Frail Sexagenarians and Septuagenarians  [PDF]
Ganesan Kathiresan, Sandra Devie, Sunnelly Velintina, Stellah Lenson, Nur Idawanny, Nur Asyikin, Nurul Hijah
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2010.11004
Abstract: Background: In Malaysia, there are few populationbased studies on the factors associated with falls, and there is a lack of prevention of falls among older adults in primary and secondary health care, particularly in terms of physical activity that could improve the physical performance of individuals at risk of falling. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the relationship between physical performance, the number of falls and the sociodemographic, physical, clinical and functional characteristics of older adult fallers. Methods: Crosssectional study carried out among 72 older adults with a history of falls in the past year, 65.3% of which were women. The participants received care at the geriatric outpatient clinic and divided into the following groups: worst physical performance (WPP) and best physical performance (BPP), onetime fallers (1F) and frequent fallers (2F). Sociodemographic, clinical, physical and functional characteristics were considered as independent variables. Comparison analysis between the groups was conducted. Results: The WPP group was older and had a higher number of illnesses and less independence in most motor dimension tasks compared to the BPP group. The 2F group had a higher number of illnesses, less handgrip strength and less independence in the bowel management task in the motor dimension of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) compared to the 1F group. Conclusions: Among older adults fallers, poor physical performance is associated with more advanced age, more illnesses and less functional independence. Moreover, recurrent falls are associated with more illnesses, less muscle strength and less functional independence in the bowel management task.
The relationship between apoptosis and aging  [PDF]
Bin Lu, Hong-Duo Chen, Hong-Guang Hong-Guang
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.326091
Abstract: Apoptosis is involved in aging and age-related disease, with respect to aging, apoptosis acting in a celltype-specific manner. The rate of apoptosis is elevated in-most types of aging cell populations and organs. In stable cells and certain continuously dividing cells, apoptosisserves to eliminate presumably dysfunctional cellsthat show homeostatic failure due to oxidative stress, glycation, and DNA damage, thereby maintaining homeostasis in the body. What’smore, apoptosis, at least in part, plays some important role inthe regulation of aging process and anti-tumorigenesis in mammals. Age-enhanced apoptosis may be aninnateprotective mechanism against age-associated tumorigenesis. There is clear evidence to indicate that senescentcells are remarkably resistant to apoptosis. The intensity of global apoptosis and autophagy clearance significantly declines in humans during aging, as aging repress the apoptotic response. In this paper, we will review the relationship between apoptosis and aging, and outline how are they interact each other.
Health, Aging and Quality of Life: An Evaluation of Experience in Family Health Unit through Popular Education  [PDF]
Cristina Katya Torres Teixeira Mendes, Fabia Barbosa de Andrade, Danielle Nóbrega de Castro, Maria do Socorro Feitosa Alves, Gilson de Vasconcelos Torres, Maria Adelaide Paredes Moreira, Antonia Oliveira Silva
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.615229
Abstract: This study aims to assess the implementation of the Health, Aging and Quality of Life. The specific objectives were executed by conducting activities with the elderly through generative themes with an emphasis on health, aging and quality of life; evaluation of the experience of older people in Unity Family Health with Popular Education; analyzing the evolution of indicators of health and quality of life of elderly patients after two years and ascertaining the effectiveness of Popular Education in the elderly group in the Family Health Unit. This is an exploratory study approved by the Ethics and Research Committee UFPB/CCS, number 0598/08 held on Primary Health Care. The project consists of two lines of integrated activities: Group Active Ageing (GEA), which brings together seniors for addressing issues related to healthy aging and the Multidimensional Health Assessment and Quality of Life through the WHOQOL-BREF. The activities were built in fortnightly meetings from the dialogue where experiences are shared and collective needs. Thus, relevant topics were suggested for the group: guidelines on physical activity, nutrition, chronic disease prevention, self-esteem, among others, and group dynamics as body stretching, stretching exercises, respiratory, metabolic and relaxation. The observed results are the very satisfactions group, reported through testimonies and translated by the enthusiasm and diligence in participation. This project promoted a better bio-psycho-social development of the elderly, reinforcing its identity by promoting and facilitating the expression of their potential positive and arousing them to a better future life prospects and community socialization feelings.
Effects of Age on the Disruption of Cognitive Performance by Exposure to Space Radiation  [PDF]
Bernard M. Rabin, Barbara Shukitt-Hale, Kirsty L. Carrihill-Knoll
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.47031
Abstract: Exposure to low doses of heavy particles and protons, which will be encountered during long-term exploratory class missions to other planets, can cause deficits in cognitive performance. These deficits are similar to those observed in aged animals. The long-term effects of such exposures and their relationship to the short-term effects and to aging remain to be established. Two-month old rats were exposed to a variety of heavy particles and protons. Recognition memory was tested at two time points following irradiation. The results showed that exposure to doses of radiation that did not disrupt cognitive performance in the younger animals, disrupted performance when the subjects were re-tested at an older age. These results indicate that there is an interaction between the age of the organism and the effects of exposure to space radiation on cognitive performance, such that exposure to doses of heavy particles or protons that may not produce an initial effect on cognitive performance may produce an effect as the organism ages. Because of the interaction between exposure to the types of radiation encountered in space and age, it is possible that participating in exploratory class missions may have consequences for the quality of life after the conclusion of the mission.
Problems in Japan’s Aging Society from the Perspective of Lichen Sclerosus  [PDF]
Naohiro Kamoda, Isao Kuroda, Kenji Shimodaira, Issei Takizawa, Masaaki Tachibana, Teiichiro Aoyagi
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.42016
We encountered 12 elderly patients with lichen sclerosus (LS), a relatively high percentage of whom were living with their families. There is a tendency to assume that elderly people living alone or older facility users with paralysis are more likely to require social care, but we note that elderly people living with their families are also likely to develop LS.
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