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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 17918 matches for " public security "
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Developing a Multi-Layer Strategy for Securing Control Systems of Oil Refineries  [PDF]
Musaria K. Mahmood, Fawzi M. Al-Naima
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2010.27064
Abstract: The energy industry and in particular the Oil Refineries are extremely important elements in Iraq’s infrastructure. A terrorist attack on one oil refinery will have a catastrophic impact on oil production and the whole economy. It can also cause serious damage to the environment and even losses of human lives. The security of information systems and industrial control systems such as Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems and Distributed Control System (DCS) used in the oil industry is a major part of infrastructure protection strategy. This paper describes an attempt to use several security procedures to design a secure, robust system for the SCADA and DCS systems currently in use in the North Oil Refinery in the city of Baiji located in northern Iraq.
Youth and Social Security Coverage in Brazil  [PDF]
Paulo Tafner, Carolina Botelho
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.21014
Abstract: Brazil is still a young country, just starting the process of aging, but Brazils spending on social security is similar to those countries whose population aging has already occurred. Some studies explain the high cost of the Brazilian Social Security System due to the assumption that there is a positive relationship between social security and poverty alleviation. In fact, the effectiveness of this instrument as reducing poverty was high until 2002, but stopped growing and fell slightly thereafter. Brazilian law provides that wives and children or stepchildren under age 21, or under 25, since they are college students, are welfare beneficiaries. In other words they are protected by Brazilian Social Security System. However, data reveals that in Brazil, children and young people have a very low social security direct coverage, which increases with age and reaches high levels for individuals aged 60 or older. Children and young people are the groups most affected by poverty and extreme poverty in Brazil. In this sense, the assumption according to which Social Security helps combat family poverty is flawed. Considering these issues, this article aims to contribute to the debate on the need to rethink the Brazilian Social Security System and the need of construction of specific policies for children and young people in Brazil.
A expans?o da seguran?a privada na Fran?a: privatiza??o submissa da a??o policial ou melhor gest?o da seguran?a coletiva?
Ocqueteau, Frédéric;
Tempo Social , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-20701997000100010
Abstract: the objective of the author is to analyze the security privatization in france, pointing out their fields of performance, and how it was accpeted by public officials, private companies and by the society. the text has also graphics to demonstrate the changes of time and place relating them with the kinds of services.
Collaborative Governance on Public Security in Concentrated Contiguous Destitute Areas: A Case Study of Wuling Mountains Area in China  [PDF]
Anhua Yang
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.35006
Abstract: In 2011, China initiated the strategy of Regional Development and Priority Poverty Alleviation in Concentrated Contiguous Destitute Areas. The vital method as well as the goal of this strategy is to revolutionize current special difficult situation by collaborative development of regional integration and basically realize the goal of building a well-off society in an all-around way synchronizing with the country. The poor condition of public security is the fundamental factor of constricting the development of Chinese contiguous destitute areas, thus leading to its lagged development. Collaborative governance of public security is not only the most basic component of regional integration but also a fundamental requirement of improving the security condition in contiguous areas for the successful implementing of the strategy mentioned above. This paper points out a framework by mainly focusing on Wuling Mountains areas in China. The system consists of conventional and unconventional public security as its content, as well as “the collaboration of public security” and “the cooperation among regional zone” as its structure.
Marinoiu Ana-Maria,Raneti Dan-Radu,Caragin Andreea Raluca
Annals of the University of Oradea : Economic Science , 2010,
Abstract: It is important to start our assumptions from the fact that, from some economists’ point of view, most of the cases which were considered examples of actual public goods were found to be wrong. So, what we want to find out is whether, considering the fact that security must not be provided only through private means, we can still talk about an equal distribution of it, or it has shifted to a selective distribution of security. In order to answer the question whether security can still be provided by the state in an equal distributional system, we will use it as a premise and try to prove it. Beginning with the theoretical characteristics of a public good and with the definitions of the present concept of security we will try to find out if one can still speak of security as a public good, and moreover, as a global public good.
Private security and the state in Latin America: the case of Mexico City
Brazilian Political Science Review (Online) , 2010,
Abstract: this article addresses the relationship between the privatization of security and the state in contemporary mexico city. by presenting an analysis of the development of the local private security market, its regulatory framework and the problems stemming from inefficient enforcement of legal standards, it demonstrates that private security in mexico city is not beyond the state. rather, through formal and informal practices, the local state and its public security agencies play a central role within the recent transformations of local security provision.
Práticas e percep??es acerca da seguran?a alimentar e nutricional entre os representantes das institui??es integrantes de um centro de referência localizado na regi?o do Butant?, município de S?o Paulo
Ass?o, Tatiana Yuri;Cordeiro, Amábela de Avelar;Costa, Christiane;Cervato, Ana Maria;
Saúde e Sociedade , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-12902007000100010
Abstract: the purpose of this article is to analyze practices and perceptions about food security (fs) among representatives (n = 23) of institutions of an fs reference center located in the butant? region, city of s?o paulo, brazil. the qualitative method and the collective subject discourse (csd) were used to analyze statements collected by means of interviews. a total of 56.5% of the studied population were considered as non-technicians and 43.5% as technicians. forty-five answers related to actions and 33 answers related to perceptions contributed to build csds. results showed that the most cited action by non-technicians was "preparation and distribution of meals" (41.6%), while technicians cited "guidance and community courses" (28.5 %). as for meaning, we had: "feeding in an attractive way, lacking nothing" (35.3%) by non-technicians and "enabling people to get the food they need" (37.4%) by technicians. it was seen that technicians believe that fs is a concept formed by many components, such as the "human right to food", and "enabling people so that they have access to food"; thus, they develop activities that meet this way of thinking. non-technicians believe that fs is a food intake which meets quantitative, qualitative, emotional, and social needs; thus, they also develop actions according to this perception. conclusions indicated congruence between fs practices and perceptions, but not between the discourse of technicians and non-technicians. the differences observed may generate conflicts because the community and institutions involved may not integrate their actions.
Work, Insecurity, and Social Justice
Diane-Gabrielle Tremblay
Studies in Social Justice , 2009,
Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns
Nathalie Burnay
Studies in Social Justice , 2009,
Abstract: Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers. However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.
Desafíos para el Estado chileno hacia el bicentenario
Héctor Aguilera Segura
Revista Enfoques : Ciencia Política y Administración Pública , 2006,
Abstract: In this article, the State’s crucial role in the generation of efficient policies oriented towards Chilean development is emphasized. It takes into consideration the domestic and foreign debate over several subjects and their development in Chile: economic model; organization, structure and size of the State; the challenges posed by education and healthcare; unemployment and labor reforms required to address the former; the citizen’s demand for a solution concerning crime and safety issued, and the need for improvements and extension of the decentralization process.
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