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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3305 matches for " prenatal repetitive exposure "
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Embryotoxicity following repetitive maternal exposure to scorpion venom
Hmed, BN;Riadh, B;Serria, H;Kamel, J;Khaled, Z;
Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-91992012000300009
Abstract: although it is a frequent accident in a few countries, scorpion envenomation during pregnancy remains scarcely studied. in the present study, the effects of repetitive maternal exposure to buthus occitanus tunetanus venom are investigated and its possible embryotoxic consequences on rats. primigravid rats received a daily intraperitoneal dose of 1 ml/kg of saline solution or 300 μg/kg of crude scorpion venom, from the 7th to the 13th day of gestation. on the 21st day, the animals were deeply anesthetized using diethyl-ether. then, blood was collected for chemical parameter analysis. following euthanasia, morphometric measurements were carried out. the results showed a significant increase in maternal heart and lung absolute weights following venom treatment. however, the mean placental weight per rat was significantly diminished. furthermore, blood urea concentration was higher in exposed rats (6.97 ± 0.62 mmol/l) than in those receiving saline solution (4.94 ± 0.90 mmol/l). many organs of venom-treated rat fetuses (brain, liver, kidney and spleen) were smaller than those of controls. on the contrary, fetal lungs were significantly heavier in fetuses exposed to venom (3.2 ± 0.4 g) than in the others (3.0 ± 0.2 g). subcutaneous blood clots, microphthalmia and total body and tail shortening were also observed in venom-treated fetuses. it is concluded that scorpion envenomation during pregnancy potentially causes intrauterine fetal alterations and growth impairment.
Effectiveness of a Novel Low Cost Intervention to Reduce Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in the Congo  [PDF]
Andrew D. Williams, Yannick Nkombo, Gery Nkodia, Gary Leonardson, Kathryn Martsolf, Larry Burd
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2014.41012

Objective: Determine the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure in the Congo. Methods: We utilized a screening tool validated in the Congo to identify women who were drinking during pregnancy. The intervention was implemented by prenatal care providers comparing 162 women receiving the intervention with 58 (controls) who did not. The study endpoints were proportion of women who quit drinking, drinking days per week, drinks per drinking day, most drinks on any day, and number of binge episodes per week. Results: In the control group 36% of the women quit drinking compared to 54% in the intervention group (Chi-square 5.61; p = 0.02). The number of drinking days per week for the controls decreased by 50.1% compared to 68% for the intervention group (p = 0.008); drinks per drinking day for the controls decreased by 37% compared to 60.1% for the intervention group (p = 0.001); and most drinks on any occasion in the controls decreased by 38% compared to 61% for the intervention group (p = 0.004). Conclusions: This study demonstrates the effectiveness of a low cost in-office intervention to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure in the Congo. At $1.50 per beer, the reduction in drinks per week would more than pay for the cost of the intervention. In addition to efforts to reduce alcohol use prior to pregnancy in the Congo, providers can now offer an evidence based intervention to reduce exposure for women who continue to drink during pregnancy.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood from Pregnant Hispanic Women Living in Brownsville, Texas
Ken Sexton,Jennifer J. Salinas,Thomas J. McDonald,Rose M. Z. Gowen,Rebecca P. Miller,Joseph B. McCormick,Susan P. Fisher-Hoch
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8083365
Abstract: Venous blood was drawn from 35 pregnant Hispanic women living in Brownsville, Texas, and matched cord blood was collected at birth. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to measure concentrations of 55 individual PAHs or groups of PAHs. Results indicate that these women and their fetuses were regularly exposed to multiple PAHs at comparatively low concentrations, with levels in cord blood generally exceeding levels in paired maternal blood. While the possibility of related adverse effects on the fetus is uncertain, these exposures in combination with socioeconomically-disadvantaged and environmentally-challenging living conditions raise legitimate public health concerns.
Economic evaluation of health consequences of prenatal methylmercury exposure in France
Céline Pichery, Martine Bellanger, Denis Zmirou-Navier, Nadine Fréry, Sylvaine Cordier, Anne Roue-LeGall, Philippe Hartemann, Philippe Grandjean
Environmental Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-11-53
Abstract: To perform an economic evaluation of annual national benefits of reduction of the prenatal MeHg exposure in France.We used data on hair-Hg concentrations in French women of childbearing age (18–45?years) from a national sample of 126 women and from two studies conducted in coastal regions (n?=?161and n?=?503). A linear dose response function with a slope of 0.465 IQ point reduction per μg/g increase in hair-Hg concentration was used, along with a log transformation of the exposure scale, where a doubling of exposure was associated with a loss of 1.5 IQ points. The costs calculations utilized an updated estimate of €2008 17,363 per IQ point decrement, with three hypothetical exposure cut-off points (hair-Hg of 0.58, 1.0, and 2.5?μg/g).Because of higher exposure levels of women in coastal communities, the annual economic impacts based on these data were greater than those using the national data, i.e. € 1.62 billion (national), and € 3.02 billion and € 2.51 billion (regional), respectively, with the linear model, and € 5.46 billion (national), and € 9.13 billion and € 8.17 billion (regional), with the log model, for exposures above 0.58?μg/g.These results emphasize that efforts to reduce MeHg exposures would have high social benefits by preventing the serious and lifelong consequences of neurodevelopmental deficits in children.Human exposure to methylmercury (MeHg) occurs primarily through ingestion of seafood and freshwater fish [1]. Due to biomagnification in food chains, relatively high MeHg concentrations occur in piscivorous marine species [2] and may exceed the highest recommended limit [3], while smaller non-predatory species, such as herring or sardine, contain concentrations of one-tenth of this limit or even less [3]. Methylation, bioaccumulation through food chains, and human intake levels are difficult to model [1]. Thus, risk assessment must rely on biomarkers of total human uptakes.Once absorbed, MeHg acts as a developmental neurotoxicant [4-7]. As the c
Prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol are associated with chronic daily headaches at childhood: A population-based study
Arruda, Marco Ant?nio;Guidetti, Vincenzo;Galli, Federica;Albuquerque, Regina Célia Ajeje Pires de;Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2011000100007
Abstract: the influence of prenatal events on the development of headaches at childhood has not been investigated and is the scope of our study. of 2,173 children identified as the target sample, consents and analyzable data were provided by 1,440 (77%). parents responded to a standardized questionnaire with a validated headache module and specific questions about prenatal exposures. odds of chronic daily headache (cdh) were significantly higher when maternal tabagism was reported. when active and passive smoking were reported, odds ratio (or) of cdh were 2.29 [95% confidence intervals (ci)=1.6 vs. 3.6)]; for active tabagism, or=4.2 (95% ci=2.1-8.5). alcohol use more than doubled the chance of cdh (24% vs. 11%, or=2.3, 95% ci=1.2-4.7). in multivariate analyses, adjustments did not substantially change the smoking/cdh association. prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol are associated with increased rates of cdh onset in preadolescent children.
Polish mother and child cohort study — defining the problem, the aim of the study and methodological assumptions
Kinga Polańska, Wojciech Hanke, , Jolanta Gromadzińska, Danuta Ligocka, Ewa Gulczyńska, Wojciech Sobala, Wojciech W sowicz
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10001-009-0037-0
Abstract: Objectives: Exposures during prenatal period have implications for pregnancy outcome as well as for children's health, morbidity and mortality. Prospective cohort study design allows for the identification of exposures that may influence pregnancy outcome and children's health, verification of such exposures by biomarker measurements and notification of any changes in exposure level. Materials and methods: Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL) is multicenter prospective cohort study conducted in 8 different regions of Poland. The final cohort is intended to comprise 1300 mother-child pairs to be recruited within 4-year period (2007-2011). The recruitment and all scheduled visits are conducted in maternity units or clinics in the districts included in the study. The women are followed-up 3 times in pregnancy (once in each trimester) and after delivery for the notification of pregnancy outcome. During each visit, detailed questionnaire and biological samples are collected including saliva, urine, hair, maternal blood and cord blood. About 6 weeks postpartum, breast milk from part of the women is collected. The study concentrates on the identification and evaluation of the effects of prenatal environmental exposure on pregnancy outcome and children's health. Specific research hypotheses refer to the role of heavy metals, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in the aetiology of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm delivery (PD). The role of oxidative stress putative mechanism and pregnant women nutritional status will be investigated. Based on questionnaire data, the impact of occupational exposures and stressful situations will be evaluated. Results: The results of the study will become available within the next few years and will help to determine levels of child prenatal exposure in several areas of Poland and its impact on course and outcome of pregnancy.
Effect of Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to an Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) on Postnatal Growth in Sprague-Dawley Rats
E.E. Iyare,F.E. Iyare
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2008,
Abstract: The present study was designed to investigate whether pups exposed to aqueous extract of HS during the foetal period and during early postnatal period would have a comparable growth with control pups in accordance with the "predictive adaptive response" hypothesis. Three groups of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used for this study. Group C had tap water while groups A and B had 0.6g/100ml and 1.8g/100ml HS extract respectively to drink throughout pregnancy and through 20 days postpartum. All groups had normal rat chow ad libitum. Dam weights were recorded daily throughout pregnancy and through 20 days postpartum while pup weights were recorded at birth, 10 days, 14 days and 20 days postpartum. Results of the present study show no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the growth of pups at 10, 14 and 20 days postpartum in all groups except for group B pups whose growth was lower (p<0.05) at 20 days postpartum. We conclude that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to an aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa does not appear to affect early postnatal growth in Sprague-Dawley rats.
Allometry of Postnatal Rat Brain Development Prenatally Exposed to Aspirin
Khalid Al-Qaisi,Ali Elkarmi,Esam Qoneis,Lubna Tahtamouni
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: A total of 200 rat pups starting from the first week after birth until the fifth week were used to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to aspirin at doses of 12.5, 25 and 37.5 mg kg-1 on the postnatal development of brain parts. Cerebrum and cerebellum length and width were measured in addition to brain and body weights and allometric relationships between these parameters were calculated. The results indicated that all relationships were allometric with noticeable differences between all aspirin treated groups and the control group. These differences indicate that aspirin has an effect on the development of the examined brain parts mainly on the cerebellum length and width.
Adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure show subtle alterations in striatal surface morphology and frontal cortical volumes
Roussotte Florence,Soderberg Lindsay,Warner Tamara,Narr Katherine
Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1866-1955-4-22
Abstract: Background Published structural neuroimaging studies of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) in humans have yielded somewhat inconsistent results, with several studies reporting no significant differences in brain structure between exposed subjects and controls. Here, we sought to clarify some of these discrepancies by applying methodologies that allow for the detection of subtle alterations in brain structure. Methods We applied surface-based anatomical modeling methods to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to examine regional changes in the shape and volume of the caudate and putamen in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure (n = 40, including 28 exposed participants and 12 unexposed controls, age range 14 to 16 years). We also sought to determine whether changes in regional brain volumes in frontal and subcortical regions occurred in adolescents with PCE compared to control participants. Results The overall volumes of the caudate and putamen did not significantly differ between PCE participants and controls. However, we found significant (P <0.05, uncorrected) effects of levels of prenatal exposure to cocaine on regional patterns of striatal morphology. Higher levels of prenatal cocaine exposure were associated with expansion of certain striatal subregions and with contraction in others. Volumetric analyses revealed no significant changes in the volume of any subcortical region of interest, but there were subtle group differences in the volumes of some frontal cortical regions, in particular reduced volumes of caudal middle frontal cortices and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex in exposed participants compared to controls. Conclusions Prenatal cocaine exposure may lead to subtle and regionally specific patterns of regional dysmorphology in the striatum and volumetric changes in the frontal lobes. The localized and bidirectional nature of effects may explain in part the contradictions in the existing literature.
Exposi??o pré-natal ao etanol: toxicidade, biomarcadores e métodos de detec??o
Cassini, Carina;Linden, Rafael;
Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-60832011000300006
Abstract: background: prenatal exposure to ethanol can produce a complex set of effects on fetal development, which is denominated fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (fasd). early detection of ethanol exposure can allow the prevention of some relevant adverse effects associated to fasd. objectives: the aim of this work was to review the main toxic effects of ethanol on the neonate and the available biomarkers of prenatal alcohol exposure. methods: a bibliographic search was performed in pubmed employing the terms "effects maternal ethanol exposure" and "biomarkers ethanol prenatal exposure" and cross references. results: many adverse effects on fetal development were described, especially deficits in the central nervous system. the biomarkers of ethanol exposure more widely described were fatty acid ethyl esters (faees), ethyl glucuronide (etg) and ethyl sulphate (ets), being meconium and hair the most common biological matrices for laboratorial evaluation. discussion: the early detection of alcohol exposure in intra-uterine life is useful to prevent the secondary effects of fasd through pharmacologic and educational intervention in affected children.
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