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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2201 matches for " practices "
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Newborn Cord Care Practices Amongst Mothers in Yenagoa Local Government Rea, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Peace Ibo Opara, Tamunopriye Jaja, Doris Atibi Dotimi, Balafama Abinye Alex-Hart
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.31004
Abstract: Background: Clean cord care is one of the essential newborn care practices recommended by the World Health Organisation to reduce morbidity and mortality amongst the World’s newborns. Despite this, cord infections are still prevalent in developing countries because of the high rates of unhygienic cord care practices. The study aimed to explore cord care practices in our environment and identify areas for intervention. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out amongst mothers attending three primary health care facilities with their infants in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Simple structured questionnaires were used to obtain information concerning the ages and sexes of babies, place of antenatal care and birth, treatments applied to the umbilical cord stump and the socioeconomic status of the parents. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0. Results: Two hundred and twenty one mothers participated in the study. The infants were aged 0 - 6 months with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Fifty four (24.4%) of mothers were of high social class. Cord care was done by grandmothers in 107(48.4%) and mothers in 89(40.3%) of babies. Sixty four (29.0%) mothers had their babies cord cleaned with Methylated spirit alone while 138(62.4%) cleaned with Methylated spirit and then applied other substances including antibiotic ointments and herbs. Maternal education, social class of parents and place of delivery were significantly associated with application of potentially harmful substances to the cord, (p = 0.049, 0.010 and 0.030 respectively). The commonest sources of information on cord care were nurses in 99 (44.8%) and grandmothers in 44 (19.9%). Conclusion: There is still a high rate of use of potentially harmful substances for cord care. All heath workers should participate in educating, mothers and grandmothers about optimal cord care.
Cultural Eating Practices among Jordanians  [PDF]
Hiba Bawadi, Zaid Al-Hamdan, Hala Bawadi, Omar Ershidat, Fwzieh Hammad, Lana Agraib
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.36106
Abstract: Culture has an enormous impact on individuals’ food choices and practices. This research aimed to screen cultural eating practices among Jordanians. Jordanian adults (N = 4750) completed a survey with regard to common eating practices in Jordan. Practices were classified into 4 themes, namely regular eating practices (7 practices), seasonal eating practices (4 practices), eating practices in social occasions (6 practices), and eating practices in religious occasions (10 practices). Interestingly, most nutritional practices during Ramadan and Eids (religious occasions) were agreed upon from 100% of the participating sample. In conclusion, culture in Jordan has a huge influences eating practices and food choice. Negative culture’s influence over eating practices may exist, thus increasing awareness about unhealthy eating practices related to culture is necessary.
Best Practices in Distance Education: A Review  [PDF]
Gabriel Kofi Boahen Nsiah
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.412108
Abstract: Education plays a significant role in shaping a nation, and the proliferation of Internet-based educational opportunities has expanded distance learning modalities to all parts of the globe. However, though this mode of delivery is being capitalized upon as a result of the opportunities it offers, it is still new to many nations and institutions of learning. This article therefore reviews the best practices that make distance education works. This will better inform nations and their learning institutions as they capitalize on this mode for providing access to education.
Creativity and Education: Interactive Teaching Practices with a Gifted Student  [PDF]
Joulilda dos Reis Taucei, Tania Stoltz, Cleusa Valério Gabardo
Creative Education (CE) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2015.621234
Abstract: There is increasing recognition of the need to encourage students of diverse educational levels to develop independent and creative reasoning. Teachers are therefore fundamental mediators in the planning of teaching strategies intended to develop these competencies. Taking these assumptions as a reference, a study1 was developed with the aim of investigating the interactive dynamics used in a Brazilian school to work with a high ability/gifted student, as well as to identify how this student’s relations with other subjects at school (colleagues, teachers, deputy head teacher (pedagoga)) are established. The qualitative research method was used, collecting data based on semi-structured interviews, focusing on a case study. The study involved one gifted student, his parents, six teachers and one deputy head teacher (pedagoga). The study showed that despite getting on well with his teachers, he has difficulty in making friends with students of his age. With regard to his involvement at school, he performs mental calculations easily and expresses himself mathematically in a creative manner, proposing differentiated ways of solving problems in the classroom. Nevertheless, the study confirmed that some teachers still have difficulty in working with gifted students. On the other hand, despite the difficulties, some teachers have made efforts to develop teaching practices based on social interaction, enabling the sharing of knowledge and skills among students, in addition to encouraging students to seek meaning in what they study. These practices are similar to the quest for meanings that Vygotsky (1997, 2004, 2008, 2009) emphasizes. The conclusion is reached that encouraging and developing creative activities are fundamental elements for performance and the incorporation of meanings with regard to contents taught at school.
Mathematical Modeling from Metacognitive Perspective Theory: A Review on STEM Integration Practices  [PDF]
Mohd Razip Bajuri, Siti Mistima Maat, Lilia Halim
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.914161
Abstract: This study presents to identify mathematical modeling is the least elements focusing on current STEM integration practices. Through this study, a review of the existing practice of STEM integration curriculums, models, modules, and programmes was undertaken to confirm the issue. The database reviewed to confirm this issue is from Social Sciences Citation Index with keyword “Mathematical Modeling,” “STEM curriculum,” “STEM model,” “STEM module” and “STEM program.” As a result, these studies confirmed that mathematical modeling activities were the least focusing on existing STEM integration practices and the theory of metacognation and the theory of sosial interactiondevelopment could promote these abilities.
Maize Storage and Consumption Practices of Farmers in Handeni District, Tanzania: Corollaries for Mycotoxin Contamination  [PDF]
Ibrahim Shabani, Martin E. Kimanya, Peter N. Gichuhi, Conrad Bonsi, Adelia C. Bovell-Benjamin
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2015.58037
Abstract: In Tanzania, maize is the main complementary food for infants and primary school children. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins through complementary foods by Tanzanian infants is of concern. The maize storage and consumption practices of farmers in Handeni District, Tanzania and their implications for mycotoxin contamination of maize flour were investigated. A convenient sample of 60 farmers in Seza Kofi and Kwabojo villages in Mgambo and Ndolwa wards were surveyed. The majority of farmers (95%) stored their maize in the house using the roofing and sack methods. Most farmers (67%) did not visually or mechanically sort defective maize kernels before storage. In both villages, the most important storage problems reported by the farmers were rodents and insects. Forty two percent of the farmers surveyed indicated that they consumed dehulled maize, while 35 and 12% consumed non-dehulled and mixed (dehulled and non-dehulled), respectively. The preponderance of storage practices described was unfavorable to mycotoxin reduction in stored maize. It is therefore recommended that appropriate, area-specific farmer training regarding recommended storage practices including storage methods, effective management of storage pests and healthy maize preparation and consumption practices be conducted. Additionally, further research on maize storage and consumption practices for Tanzania is needed.
Association between Children’s Appetite Patterns and Maternal Feeding Practices  [PDF]
Tomomi Ainuki, Rie Akamatsu
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.23032
Abstract: This study explored associations between children’s appetites and maternal feeding practices. The participants, 614 parents of 3- to 6-year-old children from kindergartens in Tokyo, Japan, completed self-administered questionnaires. The children’s appetites were measured using the Enjoyment of Food (EF) and Food Responsiveness (FR) scales of the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Using cluster analysis, we examined three appetite patterns (“both low,” “high EF and low FR,” and “both high”). The three appetite patterns were associated with children’s obesity index. The “both low” pattern was associated with the highest maternal pressure to eat. The “high EF and low FR” patterns were related to an established snack time. The “both high” pattern was associated with higher maternal instrumental feeding compared with the “high EF and low FR” types. The results of this study will facilitate the development of targeted interventions and better parental guidance on maternal feeding practices and their association with children’s eating behaviours.
Assessment of Drugs’ Donation Practices in Sudan  [PDF]
Jacob L. Doro, Asim F Mustafa, Ahmed S. Eldalo, Mirghani A. Yousif
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.31017
Abstract: The quality requirements of drug donation are different from those of other donated items. Purpose: To describe and assess key aspects of pharmaceutical donations in Sudan, the kinds of benefits and drawbacks associated with drug donations, and the government controlling role in the donation process. Methods: Retrospective and prospective studies were conducted in the period from April 2007 to Mar 2008 in the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) and some working NGOs’ data bases. Some quality aspects of donated drugs were explored. Six randomly selected nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) were examined for the relevance and some aspects of quality of donated drugs such as whether the donated drugs were listed in the National Essential Drug List, or labeled in International Nonproprietary Names, their dosage forms, the language on the package and if the donated drugs were sampled or returned ones. Results: The study showed that most of the donated drugs were relevant to NEDL normative standards. The median times from the date of arrival to the date of expiration were more than 400 days. The time prior to expiration range between 44.8% and 47.5% were found less than one year in arrival. The top ten therapies were accounted for about 40 shipped items. The study was revealed that Sudan did not develop its own guidelines for drug donations and NGOs are making no effort to develop written donation policies. Conclusion: development of national guidelines for drug donations is essential to control the donated drugs in Sudan.
Evaluation of Safety Practices in Biology Laboratories in Selected Secondary Schools within Gumel Emirate, Jigawa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Azubuike Adams, Azubuike Amarachi Salome
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.514145
Abstract: The work was carried out to find out the extent the teachers and students are aware of safety practices and device while working in the biology laboratories during practical sessions. The research questions were answered and the significant of the work was outlined. The methodology was thoroughly explained; sets of questionnaires were used for teachers and students, followed with interviewed. These methods were used as a means of data collection. Ten (10) secondary schools were selected randomly for the work. A total of twenty-three (23) biology teachers and one hundred (100) students were used. The data collected were analyzed, which revealed that 71%of the students and 73% of the teachers have good knowledge of safety practices in biology laboratories. Majority of the biology teachers in the selected secondary schools are Bsc Ed holders, with the number constitutes 65% with (5 - 10) years working experiences. Majority of the selected biology laboratories have inadequate first aid kits. The only available items were cotton wool, bandage, Delton solution and iodine solution. The finding revealed that teachers and students in the selected schools have good knowledge of safety practices. However, majority of the schools lacked safety gadget and inadequate first aid kits.
Effect of Maternal Employment on Infant Feeding Practices in Southwestern Nigeria  [PDF]
Beatrice Olubukola Ogunba
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.67063
Abstract: The study investigated the effect of maternal employment on breastfeeding and child care practices of mothers in Southwestern Nigeria. Information was collected on maternal socio economic characteristics, care and feeding practices of 450 mothers selected by multi stage random sampling procedure from both urban and rural communities. Results revealed that 46.9% mothers spent more than 8 hours at work, 62.7% worked outside their homes and 73.1% spent about 17 - 24 hours with their children per day. Children received prelacteal feeds such as water (61.1%), concoction (34%), glucose (32%) and infant formula (54.7%). Mean number of breastfeeding per day was 9.7 ± 3.9; only 24% were exclusively breastfed, 37.3% introduced complementary foods at 6 months and 68.6% terminated breastfeeding between 13 - 18 months. Mothers that were engaged in work outside their home in offices and factories practiced exclusive breastfeeding. Mothers below 30 years of age used prelacteal feeds, did not practice exclusive breastfeeding (58.3%), terminated breastfeeding earlier and combined the use of feeding bottles, plates and cups for feeding (50.3%) when compared with mothers between 40 - 50 years. Mothers in the rural areas used water as prelacteal feeds (85.3%) mothers in urban communities used infant formula (65.4%). A significant association was found between maternal places of employment. It is strongly associated with the timing of introduction of complementary foods (p < 0.02) and the number of snack consumed/day (p < 0.03). Conclusively, maternal place of work positively influences the adoption of appropriate infant feeding practice. Working mothers should receive more support in the work place for them to practice appropriate feeding practices.
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