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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8030 matches for " population fertility "
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(Ventrodorsal) Symmetrical Bicornuate Uterus Mimicking a Pedunculated Myoma—A Case Report  [PDF]
Adam Moyosore Afodun, Khadijah Kofoworola Quadri, Mustapha Akajewole Masud, Muhammad Olanrewaju Buhari, Sodiq Kolawole Lawal
Forensic Medicine and Anatomy Research (FMAR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fmar.2017.54004
Abstract: Uterine anomalies account for about 4% in the most sampled population. Here we report a case of a 35 years old woman with occasional complaint of suprapelvic “heaviness”. She had an abnormal menstrual circle for the last 6 years. Manual palpitations were unrevealing and she appeared externally healthy. HSG was earlier performed as part of a fertility intervention (wrongly concluding on a detached form of pedunculated-myoma). Ultrasound revealed 2 separated fundal-cones, uterine cavities and a single inferior cervix. Cyesis in the bicornuate uterus is usually high-risk, making patients with uterine anomalies prone to proven misdiagnosis (e.g. appendicitis) and infertility. In addition, sonar further showed bilateral ovarian torsion. Corrective surgery was done in a hospital; post surgical healing was normal and uneventful.
Fair Plan 9: Engineering Human Population to Help Safeguard Earth’s Climate  [PDF]
Michael E. Schlesinger
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2016.62026
Abstract: Our Fair Plan to Safeguard Earth’s Climate reduces the emission of greenhouse gases to zero over the 80-year time period 2020 to 2100. To accomplish this, humanity must reduce its carbon intensity—the amount of CO2 emitted per unit of energy—and its energy intensity—the amount of energy needed to generate a unit of Gross World Product. As shown in our Fair Plan 8 paper, reducing the future growth of the human population can also contribute to the reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions. Here, we explore this further. We project the historical decrease in Total Fertility Rate (TFR) across the 21st century toward its logistical asymptotic Reference value of 2.04 Births Per Woman (BPW). We then engineer the asymptotic TFR beginning in 2020 to 1.95, 1.85, 1.75, 1.65 & 1.55 BPW. We project the population across the 21st century for the Reference and engineered TFRs. We do so using the results of Basten, Lutz and Scherbov (2013) for the population evolution across the 21st century for 8 constant TFR values (=2.50, 2.25, 2.00, 1.75, 1.50, 1.25, 1.00 & 0.75 BPW). We find that purposefully engineering the asymptotic TFR can significantly contribute to achieving the reduction in greenhouse-gas emissions needed to transition to our Fair Plan to Safeguard Earth’s Climate.
Age Distribution of a Zero-Growth Population: Implications for China  [PDF]
Song Jian
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2013.22011
Abstract: It is generally accepted that zero-growth population would be the long-term destiny of any population. China’s population is expected to reach 1.4 billion with zero-growth around 2030, if the low fertility policy continues up to then. Demographic dynamics indicate that the age composition of a steady zero-growth society would asymptotically approach the population mix of today’s many developed countries. Here we present a brief analysis and some insights into the age composition of a zero-growth society and the connectedness between total fertility rate, net reproduction rate and replacement level of fertility. Other formulas useful for demographic studies are also provided to further the analysis. Our results reveal that the age composition of China’s population in 2050 would be similar to those of some developed countries today. We argue that the misgivings about “population aging” or the fear of a “winter of humanity” in China stem from rather oversimplified estimations.
Population and housing: A two-sided relationship
Clara H. Mulder
Demographic Research , 2006,
Abstract: In this paper I explore the relationship between population and housing. I argue that this relationship is two-sided. On the one hand, the size of a population, and particularly the number of households, determines the demand for housing. On the other hand, the availability of suitable and affordable housing may attract certain categories of migrants. It also influences young people's opportunities to leave the parental home, marry or cohabit, and have children. Furthermore, home-ownership hampers residential mobility and migration by binding people to a place.
Fertility in Canada: Retrospective and Prospective
Romaniuc, Anatole
Canadian Studies in Population , 1991,
Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? The first "YES"
Laurent Toulemon
Demographic Research , 2011,
Abstract: Together with three colleagues, I have been asked by the MPIDR to debate the following question: "Should governments in Europe be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility? Setting aside the "lighthearted" side of this "Rostocker Debate," (12 minutes for each speech, one minute for each comment), I saw this as a good opportunity to think about the stakes behind the question. In order to address this complex issue, it is necessary to think about the many "preliminary questions" that we have to ponder before responding: Why should fertility be raised? Are political measures legitimate? Are they efficient? On what basis are we qualified to give "expert" opinions on such a topic? When the question comes to the fore, we as scholars are sometimes asked to provide an answer. It would, of course, be more comfortable not to answer, but our interlocutors (politicians, journalists, teachers, and also funding agencies) often want a definite response one way or the other. Even though our position may be a matter of politics as well as a matter of science, we must give an answer. The empirical evidence shows that European countries where gender inequality is lower are also the countries where fertility is the highest. This is the evidence-based response that we can give to that question. European countries need to find a new equilibrium after the end of the baby boom period, when gender equality was very low. In all countries, the empowerment of women is underway, thanks to the economic independence given by work-related income. Increasing gender equality is an efficient way to reduce the opportunity costs of having and raising children, and thus to increase fertility. Finally, "pushing for gender equality" may have many positive effects other than raising fertility, and has few negative side effects. Gender equality is thus a convenient political aim per se; an institutional goal which leaves many political questions open. So, yes, we agree that governments in Europe should be more aggressive in pushing for gender equality to raise fertility!
Size structure and fertility in an Eriocnema fulva Naudin (Melastomataceae) population in Southeastern Brazil
Andrade, PM.;Santos, FAM.;Martins, FR.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842007000400014
Abstract: eriocnema fulva naudin is an endangered perennial herbaceous plant, endemic to minas gerais state, brazil. this study was conducted in the jambreiro forest (19° 58' -59's and 43° 52' -55' w, 800-1100 m altitude). in an attempt to describe the population size structure and its association with individual fertility, fifteen 1 x 1 m contiguous plots were set. we tagged, counted, and measured a total of 260 individuals in 1997, 1998 and 1999. young individuals with leaf lamina lengths < 3.4 cm comprised 33% of the total sampled, indicating that the population was reproducing locally. the number of leaves varied significantly, growth differences being detected only after two years of measurements. stem length was the variable that best showed population size variation. the length of the largest leaf lamina was the best indication of its development phase. assessing the number of leaves helped to evaluate the alteration in plant size during the study. the probability that individuals with laminas > 10 cm in length did not reproduce was 2.69%. the highest survival probability of the large-sized individuals confirmed the strong correlation between size and survival. the data indicated that size is important for the fertility of e. fulva, and it may be one of the relevant aspects to be considered for analyses of survival probability. the intraspecific competition, which was indicated by negative correlation between fruit production per size unit and density, can affect fertility, as larger plants had higher fruit production.
La contribución demográfica de la inmigración: el caso de Espa?a
León Salas, Beatriz;
Política y cultura , 2005,
Abstract: in the last quarter of the 20th century, spain became a society of immigration, in conjunction with other demographic trends, such as increased life expectancy and falling fertility rates. in this new context, immigration has received greater attention because it is considered an option, or even a solution, for tackling potential demographic imbalances. this article studies the demographic contribution of immigration in the new demographic order, and presents two perspectives from which the contribution of immigration can be seen: a direct one, through the entry of immigrants, and an indirect one, through fertility rates.
Spline interpolation of demographic data revisited
Nittaya McNeil,Patarapan Odton,Attachai Ueranantasun
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Spline functions have been suggested in demographic research for interpolating age-specific data as they have desirablesmoothness optimality properties. However, difficulties arise when boundary conditions need to be satisfied. Anadditional problem is that age-specific demographic data functions are necessarily non-negative, requiring the interpolatingspline to be monotonic non-decreasing. In this paper we describe a simple and effective alternative that circumvents theseproblems. We show that natural cubic splines can be used to interpolate age-specific demographic data and ensure thatrelevant boundary conditions on second derivatives are satisfied, thus preserving the desirable optimality property of theinterpolating function without the need to increase the degree of the spline function. The method involves incorporating oneor two additional strategically placed knots with values estimated from the data. We describe how the method works forselected fertility, population, and mortality data.
Geographia Napocensis , 2012,
Abstract: Aspects of the demographical behaviour in the Apuseni Mountains. Even though during the last 50 years in the Apuseni Mountains strong demographical decline occurred, regional differences appear in the spatial distribution of this phenomenon. The present study identifies several elements of the demographical behaviour that can explain those variations.
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