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PUB16 gene expression under abiotic stress and their putative role as an ARM repeat protein in Arabidopsis thaliana self-pollination pathway  [PDF]
María Gabriela Acosta, Miguel ángel Ahumada, Sergio Luis Lassaga, Víctor Hugo Casco
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.35079
Abstract: The armadillo repeat super-family proteins (ARM repeat super-family proteins) possess tandem armadillo repeats and have been postulated to play different roles in plant development, morphogenesis, defense, cell death, and signal transduction through hormone signalling. In The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR), we found 113 loci closely related to ARM repeat family proteins. This extensive group of proteins was studied in flowers tissues by western blot using antibodies directed against the most conserved region of the ARM repeat family proteins. The amino acid residues sequences from TAIR were aligned and the resulting phylogenetic tree allows us to inferring their evolutionary relationships. The main finding was the high similarity between the gene product of PUB16 (At5g01830, A. thaliana) and ARC1 (Brassica napus). In order to search a possible role for PUB16 we carried out stress bioassays using hormonal and saline approaches. Gene expression using RT-PCR showed that some of the ARM repeat super-family proteins are expressed both under salt or hormonal stress conditions. Particularly these studies allowed to detect and semi-quantify PUB16 gene expression in normal or stress growth conditions. In this approach it was revealed that, only in presence of GA, the expression of mRNA-PUB16 became evident. To morphologically verify the increasing number of germinated pollen grain in gibberellins treated flowers, we used epi-fluorescence microscopy assay. These results suggest that PUB16 may participate in GA signaling pathway favoring self-pollination.
Research Note: Bird-Resistant Pollination Bags for Sorghum Breeding and Germplasm Maintenance  [PDF]
Dennis C. Gitz III, Jeffrey T. Baker, Zhanguo Xin, Robert J. Lascano, John J. Burke, Sara E. Duke
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.43074
Abstract: Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide only a minimal deterrent to birds. To overcome these limitations we fabricated pollination bags from spun polyethylene fiber sheeting. No seed yield difference was found between plants bagged with either spun polyethylene or paper. Seed loss by bird damage was nearly eliminated under the polyethylene bags. In areas where bird damage is problematic bird resistant pollination bags can allow for a reduction in the plot size required for breeding and germplasm maintenance operations, increase the productivity of such operations as genetic diversity per unit land area, and make direct measurement of seed yield possible in agronomic field experiments.
Fruit Setting Behaviour of Passion Fruit  [PDF]
Mira Rani Das, Tofazzal Hossain, M. A. Baset Mia, J. U. Ahmed, A. J. M. Sirajul Kariman, M. Mofazzal Hossain
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.45132
Abstract:

Passion fruit has great prospective to fascinate fruit consumer for its taste and delicious fruit juice and improvement of the economic condition of the fruit grower in the developing countries. The self-incompatibility in the passion fruits is an imperative reason to be considered regarding fruit production. Pollination is an essential for self-sterile crops as passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.). The experiment was conducted in the field and laboratories of the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Salna, Gazipur, Bangladesh to investigate the fruit setting behavior of passion fruits at during five flashes. We estimated to study fruit setting behavior of passion fruit at different flashes and determine effective pollination method and suitable flashes among five flashes. Result revealed that percent of fruit set of passion fruit was recorded highest; Seeds per plant were recorded highest in third flash when flowers were pollinated by hand compared with self-, and natural pollinations. Length-breadth ratios of fruits in third flashes were recorded higher when pollinates by hand. Individual fruit weight was also recorded higher at third flash. Plants required minimum days from flower anthesis to full maturity during third flash. On the other hand, fruit growth behavior of hand pollinated flowers was recorded higher during third flash of passion fruit. Results indicated that all studied characteristics of fruit and seed of passion fruit of third flash performed best.

The Microenvironment within and Pollen Transmission through Polyethylene Sorghum Pollination Bags  [PDF]
Dennis C. Gitz, Jeffrey T. Baker, Zhanguo Xin, John J. Burke, Robert J. Lascano
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.62030
Abstract: Bird damage is a problem in sorghum breeding and germplasm maintenance operations. Paper pollination bags are damaged by rain and provide minimal deterrent to birds. Earlier we reported upon bird resistance of spun polyethylene pollination bags. Herein, we report the potential for pollen transmission through, and the microenvironment within, hard form (HfT) and soft form (SfT) spun polyethylene pollination bags as compared to traditional Paper pollination bags. Within Paper pollination bags morning temperatures were 10°C - 15°C above ambient and high temperature excursions as high as 45°C were measured. Heating in Sft and HfT was 25% and 50% that of Paper, respectively. Temperature differences between bags were attributed to differences in albedo and air permeability of the bag materials. No difference in pollen transmission through Paper and HfT was found. Although SfT allowed 35% - 40% wind borne pollen through the pores as compared to controls, male sterile plants covered with SfT produced only 30 seeds/panicle, about 1% of a self-pollinating fertile plant. Our results suggested that SfT could adequately reduce or eliminate cross-pollination in self-pollinating plants while maintaining near ambient environmental conditions.
Ornamental Bee Plants as Foraging Resources for Urban Bees in Southern Brazil  [PDF]
Denise Monique Dubet da Silva Mouga, Vanessa Feretti, Jeniffer Cristine de Sena, Manuel Warkentin, Andressa Karine Golinski dos Santos, Carolina Lopes Ribeiro
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.63037
Abstract: Ornamental plants are distinguished by the shape and color of their leaves/flowers and their use in landscaping and gardening. In urban areas, their presence is relevant for the maintenance of bees. Aiming to list the ornamental bee plants species occurring in Santa Catarina State (SC), southern Brazil, a survey of forage resources for bees, recorded in the State, was performed. We refer all published works developed in SC (resulting in the period 1983-2014) which include data from reports of scientific research, monographs, dissertations, Masters Dissertations, Doctoral Thesis, annals of scientific events, scientific articles and books. From the 28 ensuant works, we listed, as ornamental bee plants occurring in SC, 201 species, of 156 genera and 66 botanical families. Of these species, 92 are native (N), 26 endemic to Brazil and 109 exotic (E). Families with more ornamental bee species are: Fabaceae (22 species), Asteraceae (20), Solanaceae (11), Rosaceae (10) and Lamiaceae (8). The most cited species are: Lantana camara L. (N) (Verbenaceae) (9 quotes), Aloysia virgata (N) (Ruiz & Pav.) Juss. (Verbenaceae) (8), Hedychium coronarium J. Koenig (naturalized) (Zingiberaceae) (6) and Brachyscome multifida (E) (Asteraceae) (5), regarding habitus, herbs (48.5%) predominate, followed by bushes (21.5%), trees (16.5%) and vines (10.5%). Preferred colours of flowers by bees are, in decreasing order: white, yellow, red/pink, and others. The genus Ipomoea, Calliandra, Passiflora, Prunus and Senecio have more ornamental bee plant species. A large botanical diversity arises, demonstrating the possibilities for urban bee foraging and ornamental featuring, in a perspective of sustainability.
Poliniza??o artificial da atemóia com diversas fontes de pólen comparada com a natural
Melo, Marcelo Rosa;Pommer, Celso Valdevino;Kavati, Ryosuke;
Bragantia , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87052002000300004
Abstract: an experiment was carried out to study atemoya pollination and to determine the pollination method that produces fruits in larger amount and quality. the experiment was accomplished with cultivar gefner, in the period of november 2000 to march 2001, in a commercial orchard located in the county of lins - sp, at an altitude of 424 meters. the plants were 13 years old. the experimental design was in randomized blocks, with 5 treatments and 6 replicates. the treatments were as follows: 1) hand pollination (pollen of a. squamosa l.); 2) hand pollination (pollen of atemoya cultivar gefner); 3) hand pollination (pollen of atemoya cultivar african pride); 4) hand pollination (pollen of atemoya cultivar pr-3); 5) natural (open) pollination. the evaluation of fruit set happened 10 days after the pollination and the amount of fruits with perfect or defective shape after 40 days. atemoya fruits were picked 120 days after the pollination and individually weighed. 3-fruit samples of each treatment were taken, for the following determinations: seed and pulp weigh, number of seeds per 100 g of pulp, total soluble solids content, total acidity and soluble solids/acidity ratio. the pollination of atemoya with pollen of a. squamosa l. was more effective, increasing the fruit set (80.5% compared to less than 22% in the other treatments), fruit production and percentage of perfect fruits.
Requerimentos de poliniza??o da goiabeira
Alves, José Everton;Freitas, Breno Magalh?es;
Ciência Rural , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782007000500010
Abstract: guava (psidium guajava) is largely cultivated in northeastern brazil where it is a very important crop. however few researches have investigated the plant pollination requirements. this knowledge can help in managing orchards to improve crop productivity. therefore, the present study is aimed at investigating the pollination requirements of guava. the study was carried out with cultivar paluma and treatments of open pollination, restricted pollination, hand self-pollination and hand cross pollination among plants of the same and different cultivars were tested. guava set fruits when pollinated by wind or biotic agents, but flowers protected from flower visitors set only 15.09%. guava flowers set fruits when were hand self-pollinated, but cross pollinated flowers showed better results because raised fruit production up to 39.5%. the presence of biotic pollinators promoting cross pollination in guava orchards seems to be necessary to maximize crop productivity.
Floral visitors of Chamaecrista debilis (Vogel) Irwin & Barneby (Fabaceae - Caesalpinioideae) at cerrado of Esta??o Ecológica de Jataí, S?o Paulo State, Brazil
Nascimento, Elynton A. do;Del-Claro, Kleber;
Neotropical Entomology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2007000400024
Abstract: although chamaecrista moench genus is a very important source of pollen to bees in the cerrado, this relationship is almost unknown. within flower visitors of ch. debilis, we found hymenopterans (apidae) as the most abundants, but coleoptera (buprestidae) and lepidoptera (noctuidae) were also collected. bees of great size are pointed out as effective pollinators of cassiinae. only five out of seventeen species of floral visitors of ch. debilis sampled in cerrado, are indicated as possible pollinators, from which four species were not previously indicated in other papers.
A entomofilia do coqueiro em quest?o: avalia??o do transporte de pólen por formigas e abelhas nas inflorescências
Concei??o, Eltamara S. da;Delabie, Jacques H.C.;Costa Neto, Antonio de O.;
Neotropical Entomology , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2004000600004
Abstract: the coconut tree, cocos nucifera l. (arecaceae), is an important crop in northeast of brazil. it is essentially an anemophilous plant, but numerous insects visit its inflorescences, at different flowering and fructification stages, and they can interfere in the pollination process. there are few studies to verify and determine the efficiency of these arthropods as pollinators. on coconut trees, which are cultivated near bahia shore, a study has been carried out to evaluate the capacity of several hymenopterous species (ants and bees) to carry pollen on their body, in order to examine their contribution on pollination. both groups of insects transported a meaningful amount of pollen, and the bees were considered totally able to pollinate the plant. bees from the trigona and plebeia genera could carry more quantity of coconut pollen than apis mellifera l., although the last was more frequent. the ants carried a lower amount of pollen and they contributed only casually to pollination. the ectatomma, monomorium, camponotus and pseudomyrmex genera showed a better ability to transport pollen. it was concluded that, due to their apterism, some ants can only act as casual pollinators on certain varieties of auto-pollinating coconut trees, while bees may be considered good pollinators of the tree. native bees should be favored to contribute to pollination, at least in areas where the coconut anemophily is compromised, as in the case of isolated plants or as those set at intervals and in areas isolated from wind.
Varia??o no número de glandulas e produ??o de óleo em flores de Stigmaphyllon paralias A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae)
Carvalho, Paula Dib de;Borba, Eduardo Leite;Lucchese, Angélica Maria;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062005000200002
Abstract: a population of stigmaphyllon paralias (malpighiaceae) was studied in feira de santana, bahia, brazil. variation of the number of oil glands and oil production in the flowers were analized. 76% of the individuals did not present variation on the number of glands among their flowers, 41% presented flowers with 10 glands, 31% with eight glands and 4% with nine glands. in the flowers of the morphs with eight or nine glands, the absent glands were always associated to the inferior sepal. only centris leprieuri and epicharis sp. (apidae: centridini) visited flowers of s. paralias, collecting oil as rewarding. the inferior sepal is located under the pollinator abdomen when it is standing in the flower, therefore being inaccessible for oil collection. we suggest that the occurrence of glands not utilized by pollinators has allowed the appearance of morphs in the populations that do not present those glands. all glands of all flower morphs are functional. flowers of the two more representative morphs, bearing eight and 10 glands, produce the same amount of oil. glands of flowers with lower number of glands (eight) increase nearly 20% plus oil production, compensating oil production per flower.
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