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Is angiography still the best method to stratify stroke risk in symptomatic atherosclerotic carotid plaque?  [PDF]
Gustavo W. Kuster, A. J. Da Rocha, A. S. F. Silva, R. A. Valiente, M. S. G. Rocha, A. R. Massaro
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2013.28124
Abstract: The degree of vessel lumen narrowing is an independent predictor of ischemic stroke. New developments in carotid plaque morphology imaging (MR, CT), may bring new insights to the relationship between carotid atherosclerotic disease and stroke risk. Our aim is to review the stroke risk in a symptomatic patient with moderate carotid stenosis by CT imaging and histopathology. A 72-year-old patient with low ABCD2 scores TIA and moderate left internal carotid stenosis (50% by carotid ultrasound), was discharged with an optimized medical therapy. Four months later, he presented an ischemic stroke in the left frontal area. Carotid angiography showed a 60% stenosis in the left-internal carotid artery with a regular surface. CT plaque imaging detected a thin fibrous cap with calcification and an intraplaque hemorrhage (high-risk plaque). These findings were confirmed in the histolopathological study of the atherosclerotic plaque performed after the endarterectomy. After 1 year of follow-up, the patient returned independently to his daily activities. We propose, in this study, the inclusion of noninvasive plaque imaging in the evaluation of acute TIA with moderate carotid stenosis to better select patients with higher risk of stroke recurrence.
Simulation of the Thermal and Mechanical Effects of a Planar Rectangular High Intensity Ultrasound Transducer to Be Used for Destroying Atherosclerotic Plaque  [PDF]
Christakis Damianou, C. Christofi, N. Mylonas
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.510B070
Abstract:

The aim of this study is to perform a simulation study of the thermal and mechanical effects of a flat rectangular (3×10 mm2),MRI compatible transducer operating at 5 MHz for the purpose of destroying atherosclerotic plaque. The simulation study focuses on measuring the plaque destruction (due to the thermal of mechanical mode of ultrasound) as a function of power, time, frequency, duty factor and pulse duration. The main goal is to keep the artery temperature at a safe level. The simulation study shows that with the thermal mode the temperature in the artery cannot be kept at a safe level.

Isolation of Dental Caries Bacteria from Dental Plaque and Effect of Tooth Pastes on Acidogenic Bacteria  [PDF]
Dhruw Chandrabhan, Rajmani Hemlata, Bhatt Renu, Verma Pradeep
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2012.23009
Abstract: Destruction of calcified tissue was caused by acids which are by product of carbohydrate metabolism of acidogenic bacteria consequent to dental caries. The purpose of this study was to assess the existence of acidogens potentially causing the dental caries and comparatively evaluation of efficacy of different toothpastes. The dental plaques of fifty persons belong to three age groups (1 - 20, 21 - 40, 41 - 60 year and above) were examined to identify microorganisms by the culture method. Thirty nine bacteria were isolated by spread plate method on BSMY I minimal media. Thirteen out of thirty nine, acidogens colonized in the dental plaques. Seven potentially acidogens CD17, CD26, CD27, CD28, CD29, CD34 and CD35 were treated with five different toothpastes. Inhibition effect of Triclosan and Fluoride containing tooth pastes were found more efficient. The results of the present study revealed that bacteria that commonly cause dental caries colonized in dental plaques of children and alcoholic person. Therefore, dental plaques must be considered a specific reservoir of colonization and subsequent dental caries. To reduce the dental problem triclosan and fluoride containing product should be recommended.
Effect of Surface Roughness and Materials Composition  [PDF]
Maryam Gharechahi, Horieh Moosavi, Maryam Forghani
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.324056
Abstract: In the mouth, biofilm formation occurs on all soft and hard surfaces. Microbial colonization on such surfaces is always preceded by the formation of a pellicle. The physicochemical surface properties of a pellicle are largely dependent on the physical and chemical nature of the underlying surface. Thus, the surface structure and composition of the underlying surface will influence on the initial bacterial adhesion. The aim of this review is to evaluate the influence of the surface roughness and the restorative material composition on the adhesion process of oral bacteria. Both in vitro and in vivo studies underline the importance of both variables in dental plaque formation. Rough surfaces will promote plaque formation and maturation. Candida species are found on acrylic dentures, but dentures coating and soaking of dentures in disinfectant solutions may be an effective method to prevent biofilm formation. Biofilms on gold and amalgam are thick, but with low viability. Glass-ionomer cement collects a thin biofilm with a low viability. Biofilms on composites cause surface deterioration, which enhances biofilm formation. Biofilms on ceramics are thin and highly viable.
The effect of green tea mouthwash (Camellia sinensis) on wound healing following periodontal crown lengthening surgery; a double blind randomized controlled trial  [PDF]
Ali Forouzanfar, Hamid Reza Arab, Hooman Shafaee, Majid Reza Mokhtari, Shayan Golestani
Open Journal of Stomatology (OJST) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojst.2012.24064
Abstract: Green tea has been used as a traditional medicine since 2700 BC and several studies have shown that green tea polyphenols inhibit the growth of oral and periodontal pathogenic bacteria and can improve oral and gingival health. In this clinical study we investigated the effect of green tea mouthwash on microbial dental plaque and gingival inflammation following periodontal surgery. A total of 34 crown lengthening surgeries were included in this study. After removing periodontal dressing, green tea mouthwash for the test group and placebo for the patients in the control group were prescribed, and periodontal parameters were assessed at base line and after 2 weeks. Analysis of the data revealed the significant effect of green tea mouthwash on reducing Plaque index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Bleeding on probing (BOP). Therefore it would be recommended as a safe, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial mouthwash for treating gingival inflammation and maintaining oral and gingival health.
Controlling the rate of penetration of a therapeutic drug into the wall of an artery by means of a pressurized balloon  [PDF]
John R. Stark, John M. Gorman, Ephraim M. Sparrow, John P. Abraham, Rob E. Kohler
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2013.65067
Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to propose, model, and characterize a means of accelerating the rate of delivery of therapeutic drugs to human tissues. The investigated means is a pressurized, permeable-walled balloon filled with a homogeneous mixture of the drug and the carrier fluid. The fluid mixture, driven by pressure, traverses the thickness of the balloon wall through laser-drilled pores. The number and deployment of the pores can be controlled to a high degree of precision. As a consequence, the wall of the balloon can be regarded as a homogeneous porous medium, and the traversing fluid flow can be analyzed by means of porous media models. When the balloon is in intimate contact with the surface of a tissue bed, the therapeutic fluid flows in series as it passes through the balloon wall and penetrates the tissue. The flow rate can be controlled by proper selection of the balloon permeability, the viscosity of the flowing medium, and the pressure internal to the balloon. The delivered concentration of the drug was predicted by coupling the present balloon-focused theory with a previously developed tissue-bed model that includes both diffusion and advection processes. The tribologic interaction of the pressurized balloon with an artery wall was investigated experimentally to assess the possible formation of aneurysms.

Aggregation of plaque disclosing agent in a dentifrice
Silva, Débora Dias da;Gon?alo, Camila da Silva;Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de;Wada, Ronaldo Seichi;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572004000200014
Abstract: dental plaque removal is an important issue in health promotion. toothbrushing is one of the main methods employed for such purpose, since it can prevent dental caries by means of the fluoride present in the dentifrice. dentifrices might contain plaque disclosing agents and thus allow dental plaque observation. the aim of this study was to assess whether utilization of a plaque disclosing agent interfered with plaque removal among adolescents, as well as the difference between utilization of erythrosine tablets and dentifrices containing plaque disclosing agent. the sample was composed of 62 students from piracicaba, sp, brazil, aged 12 to 14 years old, divided into 3 groups: g1 or control group (toothbrushing without plaque disclosure); g2 (plaque disclosing with an erythrosine tablet and toothbrushing) and g3 (toothbrushing with dentifrice containing plaque disclosing agent). after toothbrushing, disclosure of the remaining dental plaque was performed in all groups with a fuchsin tablet and measured through the simplified oral health assessment index (ohi-s), in two stages with a 2-month interval between them. the analysis of variance (anova) showed that there was no difference in the ohi-s index between the groups (p>0.05), however the g3 displayed a higher proportion of students with plaque reduction (23%) than g2 (21%), besides the smallest difference in the mean remaining dental plaque. there was no difference between groups; however, it was suggested that the dentifrice with plaque disclosing agent had positive results in relation to the erythrosine tablet, even though the small sample size may have interfered with the results, indicating the need of complementary studies.
The conundrum of parapsoriasis versus patch stage of mycosis fungoides
Sarveswari K,Yesudian Patrick
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2009,
Abstract: Terminological confusion with benign dermatosis, such as parapsoriasis en plaques, makes it difficult to diagnose mycosis fungoides in the early patch stage. Early diagnosis of mycosis fungoides (MF) is important for deciding on type of therapy, prognosis and for further follow-up. However, until recently, there has been no consensus on criteria that would help in diagnosing the disease early. Some believe that large plaque parapsoriasis (LPP) should be classified with early patch stage of MF and should be treated aggressively. However, there is no firm clinical or laboratory criteria to predict which LPP will progress to MF and we can only discuss about statistical probability. Moreover, long-term outcome analysis of even patch stage of MF is similar to that of control population. We therefore believe that LPP should be considered as a separate entity at least to prevent the patient from being given a frightening diagnosis. We also feel that patients need not be treated with aggressive therapy for LPP and will need only a close follow-up. This article emphasizes the criteria for diagnosing early MF and has highlighted the importance of considering LPP as a distinct benign entity.
Bilateral senile scleral plaques mimicking post-inflammatory scleral ectasia
Murthy Somasheila,Sangwan Virender
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology , 2004,
Abstract: Scleral plaque is a commonly occurring change in older individuals. We report a case of bilateral scleral plaques seen in an elderly female patient. This current case report describes a common but often missed benign scleral change in the elderly individual.
Control mecánico - químico de la placa supragingival con diferentes concentraciones de clorhexidina
Santos Gusm?o,Estela; Cim?es,Renata; Souza Coelho,Renata de; Lima dos Santos,Rosenês; Moreira dos Santos,Daniella Rossiley; Vieira Eskinazi,Fernanda Maria; Leite de Macêdo,Carolina;
Acta Odontológica Venezolana , 2009,
Abstract: the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of chlorhexidine in reducing supragingival biofilm index, this study compared two different concentrations of chlorhexidine associated with tooth brushing (experimental groups), and tooth brushing without any mouthrinse (control group). 75 patients, both sexes, participated in this study, aged 17 to 65 years, periodontally healthy, with no plaque retaining factor, and no systemic diseases. the dental biofilm was quantified by using the oral hygiene index simplified - ohi-s (debris index) and its percentages were recorded in two moments (initial and final), in a week interval. the sample was divided into three groups, each one with 25 patients: group i: toothbrushing without any mouthrinse; group ii: toothbrushing associated with manipulated chlorhexidine mouthrinse (0.12%); group iii: toothbrushing associated with commercial chlorhexidine mouthrinse (0.2%). results showed a significant reduction (p<0.05) between initial and final indices in all groups analyzed - no matter the treatment adopted; comparing the groups, the data indicated a significant difference between group iii (p<0.05) and groups i and ii; when analyzing sex variable, specifically men data, it was found significant association between groups ii and iii; when comparing groups i, ii and iii in relation to the variable age, results showed a significant difference in individuals aged 17 to 29 years, between groups i and iii. finally, data showed that all kinds of treatments proposed in this research were successful and significant in the reduction of the supragingival biofilm index, specially for group iii, which used toothbrushing associated to manipulated chlorhexidine mouthrinse (0.2%).
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