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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3207 matches for " osteoporosis etiology "
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Avalia??o clínica da vertebroplastia percutanea transpedicular
Hubner, André Rafael;Carneiro, Marlon Ferreira;Nunes, Marcos Ceita;Azevedo, Vinicius Gon?alves de;Suárez, Alvaro Diego Heredia;Ribeiro, Marcelo;Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas;
Coluna/Columna , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1808-18512011000200007
Abstract: objective: this paper evaluates the analgesic effect and obtained vertebral stability of percutaneous vertebroplasty with polymethylmethacrylate (pmma) in patients with vertebral pathological fractures, and performs a detailed revision of this technique. methods: a retrospective analysis of 64 percutaneous vertebroplasty procedures in 46 patients was performed. patients were evaluated by medical records, pre and post-operative radiographs, and by pain status (visual analog pain scale). results: 37 (80.4%) patients were female and 9 (19.6%) male, with mean age of 71 years (standard deviation + / - 9.2), ranging from 50 to 90 years. sixty-four levels were treated, with a predominance of thoracic-lumbar segment, the majority 17 (26.6%) of vertebroplaties at t12 pedicle. thirty-one patients (67.4%) presented only one fractured level, 12 patients (26.1%) presented 02 levels and three (6.5%) presented 03 or more treated levels. osteoporosis was the most common diagnosis (33 cases, 71.7%). a high satisfaction rate of 90 to 100% was observed to the majority of patients when considering relief of pain postoperatively. conclusions: vertebroplasty has proven to be an effective procedure to treat pain caused by pathological fracture, and it is also used for diagnostic investigation (bone biopsy). the technique is secure and has provided low complications rates.
Male osteoporosis: A review
Antonio Herrera,Antonio Lobo-Escolar,Jesús Mateo,Jorge Gil
World Journal of Orthopedics , 2012, DOI: 10.5312/wjo.v3.i12.223
Abstract: Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism. Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis.
Osteoporose
Gali, Julio Cesar;
Acta Ortopédica Brasileira , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-78522001000200007
Abstract: osteoporosis is an osteometabolic disease affecting mainly postmenopausal women. according to the world health organization, 1/3 of older than 65 white women are affected by osteoporosis. notwithstanding, the estimates say that 60-year old white males have a 25% chance of osteoporotic fractures. diagnosis and the therapeutic design are based on bone densitometry and laboratory determinations of formation and bone reabsorption markers. densitometry is the best fracture predictor. currently available drugs act inhibiting bone reabsorption. the main form of treatment of osteoporosis is prevention: smoking must be avoided; alcohol and coffee drinking must be moderate; physical activity and adequate calcium intake are fundamental; proprioceptive training can prevent falls and, consequently, fractures.
The Relationship between Functional Disability and Bone Mineral Content in Hemiparetic Patients
Derya DEMIRBAG,Ferda OZDEMIR,Siranus KOKINO,Sakir BERKARDA
Trakya Universitesi Tip Fakultesi Dergisi , 2005,
Abstract: Objectives: Hemiparesis is the most frequent neurological problem after stroke. The immobilization resulting from motor weakness in hemiparetic patients has adverse effects on bone tissue. In this study, the relationship between functional disability and bone mass was investigated. Patients and Methods: Forty-one left hemiparetic patients (13 women, 28 men; mean age 59.5±14.2 years; range 16 to 78 years) who were hospitalized for the first time after stroke for rehabilitation were recruited. Motor recovery was evaluated according to the Brunnstrom stages (BR), and spasticity was assessed according to the modified Ashworth index. Activities of daily living and functional disability were evaluated by the Barthel Index (BI). Bone mineral content (BMC) was measured by dual X- ray absorptiometry in the forearm and femur on both nonparetic and paretic sides. Results: On the paretic side, BMC values of both the forearm and femur were significantly lower (p<0.05). Bone mineral content showed a positive correlation with BR scores and BI (p<0.05). We did not find any significant association between BMC values and the Ashworth index (p>0.05). The neuromotor improvement and independency level of the patient were found to be in relationship with the bone mass. Conclusion: Loss of BMC due to hemiparesis may be prevented with an effective treatment resulting in functional improvement. This may be helpful in protecting the patient from secondary complications of low bone density.
Diabetic osteopathy
Ili? Jana,Kova?ev Branka
Medicinski Pregled , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0504147i
Abstract: Introduction. The aim of this study was to point out some dilemmas about the existence and pathogenesis of primary diabetic osteopathy as a separate entity, based on currently available studies. Expert disagreements are present not only about the occurrence of generalized osteopathy with diabetic disease, but also about direct relationship between metabolic diabetes control and bone metabolism and influence of disease duration and sex on bone changes. Pathogenesis of diabetic osteopathy Decreased bone formation is the basic mechanism leading to decreased bone mass. Biochemical markers showed no clear connection with bone density measurement. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) affect bone metabolism. Osteopathy in patients with diabetic disease-type 1 Some clinical studies have shown that patients with diabetic disease-type 1 have a mild decrease in bone mass, while others have not presented such results. Osteopathy in patients with diabetic disease-type2 In patients with diabetic disease-type 2 the risk for osteopathy is even less defined. Patients treated with oral hypoglycemics present with higher decrease of bone mass has than patients treated with insulin therapy. This could partly be explained by anabolic effects of insulin on bones. Bone fractures in patients with diabetic disease Literature data are contradictory concerning the occurrence of bone fractures in diabetic patients. A survey of bone fracture occurrence in diabetic patients was performed in "Veljko Vlahovi Medical Center" in Vrbas and it included a group of 100 patients with diabetic disease. The results show that 12 patients had some fractures: mostly females in postmenopause, aged and with secondary insulin-dependent diabetes and most frequently arm fractures. Considering contradictory literature data, further longitudinal studies are necessary. .
Comments on: “Comparison of microbiological results of deep tissue biopsy and superficial swab in diabetic foot infections”
Vedat Turhan,Yal??n ?nem,Mesut Mutluo?lu,Günalp Uzun
Journal of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases , 2012,
Abstract: We read the article by Bozkurt et al., which assessedthe reliability of superficial swabs in diabeticfoot ulcers with great interest.1 We believethat including anaerobic culture results is an importantstrength of their study, as this may helpthe clinician guide the empiric antimicrobial treatmentdecision. This paper will not only provide aconsiderable contribution to the clinicians in diagnosingand treating diabetic foot infections but willalso serve as a referring source in reflecting thecurrent microbiological etiology of these woundsin Turkey. However, we have some remarks concerningthe methodology and conclusions.
Osteoprotegerin Secretion by Mevastatin via p38MAPK and NF-kB  [PDF]
Helen Smith
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2012.22006
Abstract: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a protein produced by many cell types that has the remarkable property of inhibiting bone loss. It does this by binding to the key bone resorptive cytokine, receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL). This cytokine is produced mainly by osteoblastic cells and is instrumental in osteoclast differentiation. If the ratio of RANKL:OPG increases, bone resorption increases and results in bone loss in diseases such osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Hence, if drugs can be found that increase OPG, this will decrease the activity of osteoclasts and therefore bone resorption. Statins are cholesterol lowering drugs that have recently been shown to increase bone formation in rodents. It was hypothesised from this finding that this could be due to an increase in OPG production. If these commonly prescribed drugs could be used to prevent bone loss or to increase bone formation then this may prove a useful means of reducing fracture risk in patients. Treating Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells in vitro with mevastatin increased OPG production and secretion through the mevalonate pathway. A failure of geranylgeranylation of Rho and/or farnesylation of Ras proteins leads to an increase in PI-3K activation then AKT activation leading to several different signaling pathways such as MAPK’s and NF-kB. NF-kB and p38MAPK inhibitors prevented the statin stimulation of OPG but not the decrease in cell number, suggesting that statins regulate OPG secretion via PI-3K, p38MAPK and NF-kB.
FRAX and Exercise: Should Exercise Be Categorized as a Risk Factor in Osteoporotic Patients  [PDF]
Akira Horikawa, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Yoichi Shimada, Hiroyuki Kodama
Open Journal of Orthopedics (OJO) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojo.2013.32025
Abstract:

Although FRAX (WHO Fracture Risk assessment Tool), developed by the WHO, is a well-validated tool for determining the probability of a major osteoporotic fracture in the next 10 years, it doesn’t include a number of other impact factors such as exercise and nutrition. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in FRAX between subjects with and without exercise habits or intake of calcium/coffee. A significant difference in FRAX was observed between the groups with respect to exercise (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in FRAX, however, between the groups with and without intake of calcium/coffee. Although exercise habits are not included in FRAX, our findings suggest that exercise status influenced other factors included in FRAX. Since exercise is reported to prevent falls and fall-related osteoporotic fractures, including exercise status in FRAX may be more effective for estimating the possibility of future fractures. Further investigation should be conducted to determine whether exercise status is an important risk factor, independent of FRAX, for osteoporotic fractures.

The importance of diet in osteoporosis  [PDF]
Nicolás Mendoza, Jesús Presa, Antonio Martínez-Amat, Fidel Hita
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2013.32012
Abstract:

The knowledge of risk factors associated with the development of osteoporosis (OP) is vital in the prevention strategy of this disease and its physical and economic consequences. The epidemiological characteristics of our population of postmenopausal women exhibit a pattern similar to that described in other studies, showing a proportional relationship between the magnitude of the risk factor and the severity of osteopenia/osteoporosis. Moreover, we observed protective effects for several dietary factors, such as the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and cereals; the moderate consumption of fish, alcohol, and dairy products; and the low intake of red meat, on spinal bone mineral density (BMD). Only the intake of grains and vegetables exerted protective effects on hip BMD.

Is Surgery a Good Choice for Patients over 100 Years with Hip Fracture?  [PDF]
Bogdan Deleanu, Radu Prejbeanu, Dinu Vermesan, Lucian Honcea, Cristina Nuta, Vlad Predescu
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.48056
Abstract: Introduction: Elderly patients represent a difficult category of surgical candidates for orthopedic surgery because they have multiple associated diseases and a high degree of osteoporosis. Presentation of Case: We present the case of a 103 years old woman with a pertrohanteric hip fracture treated successfully using a 135° dynamic hip screw. Discussion: There are many discussions about this kind of patients regarding postoperative complications, duration of hospitalization, stage of recovery and the patient’s status at discharge. Conclusion: We conclude that surgery may benefit patients who are over 100 year-old.
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