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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4790 matches for " opportunity cost "
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Custos de oportunidade para aloca??o de efluentes nas áreas plantadas de cana na bacia do rio Pirapama
Germano, Bruna da Nóbrega;Moraes, Márcia Maria Guedes Alcoforado de;Ramos, Francisco de Sousa;
Estudos Econ?micos (S?o Paulo) , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-41612010000300007
Abstract: this paper identifies the opportunity costs in effluent allocation over sugarcane crop acres located more than 2km away from the agroindustry plant jb, during the harvest season. the optimization problem described herein explains why these opportunity costs are usually missed. actually, these costs derive from the marginal values associated to the decision-making variables concerning an economic benefit maximization problem resolved using the general algebraic modeling system (gams) and from the dual analysis of the linearized problem therein. besides, different effluent transportation and effluent treatment cost coefficients were considered in simulating possible impacts and benefits regarding effluent allocation. this approach supports the optimal definition of charging and/or subsidizing schemes best suited to allocate effluents over sugarcane crops located farther away from hub agroindustry plants, not just for more disseminated productivity gains, but also for best compliance with river water quality constraints.
Measuring the effect of opportunity cost of time on participation in sports and exercise  [PDF]
Nana Kwame Anokye, Subhash Pokhrel, Julia Fox-Rushby
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.35052
Abstract: Background: There is limited research on the association between opportunity cost of time and sports and exercise due to lack of data on opportunity cost of time. Using a sample of 14142 adults from Health Survey for England (2006), we develop and test a composite index of opportunity cost of time (to address the current issues with data constraint on opportunity cost of time) in order to explore the relationship between opportunity cost of time and sports participation. Methods: Probit regression models are fitted adjusting for a range of covariates. Opportunity cost of time is measured with two proxy measures: a) composite index (consisting of various indicators of wage earnings) constructed using principal component analysis; and b) education and employment, approach in the literature. We estimate the relative impact of the composite index compared with current proxy measures, on prediction of sports participation. Findings: Findings suggest that higher opportunity cost of time is associated with increased likelihood of sports participation, regardless of the time intensity of activity or the measure of opportunity cost of time used. The relative impacts of the two proxy measures are comparable. Sports and exercise was found to be positively correlated with income. Another important positive correlate of sports and exercise is participation in voluntary activity. The research and policy implications of our findings are discussed.
Opportunity Costs of Emissions Caused by Land-Use Changes  [PDF]
S. Suyanto, Andree Ekadinata, Muhammad Sofiyuddin, Arif Rahmanullah
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.41013

Amid the euphoria of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) and REDD+ discussions, the expectations of large financial gains raise the interest of all. A country, however, will only enjoy REDD benefits if the cost of REDD is lower than the benefit. The opportunity cost analysis is an effective tool for assessing the feasibility of REDD+ since the largest portion of costs associated with REDD+ and can help to identify fair compensation for those who change their land use. The opportunity cost analysis has been exercised in Tanjung Jabung Barat (Tanjabar) district-Indonesia to examine the economic-feasibility of carbon emission reduction under different type carbon price scenarios. This study reveals a sharp decline of land-use systems with high carbon-stock and low profitability is obvious. On mineral soil, low carbon-stock and high profitability (mostly oil palm) has increased rapidly, especially in the period 2000-2009. It has become the dominant land-use system. The low-to-medium carbon stock and medium profitability land-use category increased from 1990 to 2005 but declined from 2005 to 2009. The low carbon-stock and low profitability category was constant and the proportion of the area was below 15%. The ex-ante analysis in predicting the potential for future emissions reduction in Tanjabar through REDD+ approaches shows that the cumulative emission of Tanjabar in 2020 is estimated at 61.91 Mg CO

Economic Impact of Clinical Research to Research Centers and Opportunity Cost for the Reimbursement System in Turkey  [PDF]
Güven? Ko?kaya, Meral Demir, P?nar Daylan Kockaya, Mehtap Tatar, Ali Ya??z üresin
Health (Health) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/health.2015.79128
Abstract: Introduction: Clinical research is a key component of drug development with a significant economic value. It has been reported that the development of a new molecule requires 10 - 15 years and costs almost $1.3 billion. Around 75% of the cost is spent on the Phase I-IV clinical research process. This study aimed to show the economic value of clinical research in Turkey. Methods: Clinical trial budgets were estimated from the raw data of the Report of Istanbul Medical Faculty Clinical Research (ITFKAR). In the research, the estimated cost of drugs used in the clinical trials for the Turkish reimbursement agency (SGK) was calculated to show the cost of medicines acquired through clinical research. Results: The total budget for sponsored pharmaceutical research was $107 million in Turkey, and the government saved close to $311,096,130 during 2006-2010, due to not reimbursing the patients for the drugs in the clinical trials. Conclusion: Despite the limitations of the study, the findings are unique for Turkey. The results can lead to revisiting the importance and economic value of clinical trials in Turkey.
Challenges of Opportunity Cost Analysis in Planning REDD+: A Honduran Case Study of Social and Cultural Values Associated with Indigenous Forest Uses
Spencer T. Plumb,Erik A. Nielsen,Yeon-Su Kim
Forests , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/f3020244
Abstract: The REDD Programme is predicated on the assumption that developed countries will provide sufficient funds to offset opportunity costs associated with avoiding deforestation. The role of non-market values in indigenous land management may challenge the efficacy of compensation schemes targeted at meeting opportunity costs as calculated in traditional opportunity cost analysis (OCA). Furthermore it is unclear how these economic incentives might affect social and cultural values linked to land-use norms, livelihoods, and local governance. This study explores the economic, social and cultural values of forest uses for a Miskito community in the Rio Plátano Biosphere Reserve in Honduras. Data were collected using household surveys, farm visits, and community workshops. OCA indicates potential for successful REDD+ payment schemes; however it is an inadequate method to account for subsistence and cultural opportunity costs associated with avoided deforestation. Compensation to change land-use practices may undermine governance institutions necessary to address deforestation in the region. Our results indicate that small-scale agriculture and other forest-based subsistence activities are important cultural practices for maintaining Miskito identity and forest management institutions. Recommendations are offered for using OCA to develop REDD+ projects that recognize the linkages between social and cultural values and forest management by focusing on approaches that consider a full range of economic, social and cultural opportunity costs.
Costo Oportunidad de Adolescentes en Unidades de Medicina Familiar
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0370-41062010000500005
Abstract: objective: to determine the opportunity cost for adolescents requiring care at family medicine clinics. material and methods: study of cost performed on 624 patients, 10-19 years of age, family medicine clinics, pharmacy and laboratory. a conglomerate sample technique was used (medical unit), and proportional sampling internally. several sociodemographic variables were evaluated, including transfer, waiting time and care. statistical evaluation included averages, percentages, and confidence intervals of 95%. results: the cost-opportunity for family medicine and pharmacy in the situations evaluated was $10.22 for the teenager, $71.43 for the first family member, and $14.28 for the second person accompanying the child. when they attend all three services, the cost is $12.26, $82.71 and $16.54 respectively. a weighted average cost of opportunity ifor all three services is $93.18. conclusions: the largest cost of opportunity for adolescents occurs when waiting for care in family medicine. it is suggested that strategies be implemented to decrese waiting times in the various services.
Márcio Lopes da Silva,José Luiz Pereira de Rezende,Vicente Batista Lima Junior,Sidney Araújo Cordeiro
CERNE , 2008,
Abstract: This work studied the importance of land cost and pointed out the different approaches of including it in the economicanalysis of forest projects and in the wood producing cost, discussed each method and, by comparing them, it was pointed out the bestmethod of approaching the problem. The following methods were analyzed: Interests on the value of the land; to consider that the landvalues changeover time at real interest rate; to include land value as cost and later, at harvest time, as revenue; and Soil ExpectationValue (SEV). It was concluded that all methods differ one from each other, because they are based on different economic principles. Themethod of interests on land value indicated more coherent result with the market value, while the SEV was most sensible to thediscounting rate variation and it catches only land productive value. However none of them considered the land market value and itsreal valorization overtime.
Ecological Compensation: A Key to Sustainable Development in the Guizhou Province Karst Region, Southwest China  [PDF]
Chuanyan Zhou, Brita M. Svensson, Junhua Yan, Xun Chen, Kun Li
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2014.43028

The conflict between poverty and the resulting over-exploitation of natural resources on the one hand, and ecological restoration and sustainable development on the other hand, in the southwest China karst region was studied. In this region, the karst forest (a mixed evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved forest) is rapidly degrading due to over-exploitation (sloping farming). We suggest that an Ecological Compensation (EC) model should be established with: financial institutions, local people, and a third part as an intermediate link. The process would continue for 20 years. As a case study we used Bangui town (3800 families) in the upper reaches of Pearl River. The per capita income of residents was used as the benchmark. The compensation would start with 80%, and decrease to 20% over a period of 20 years. Infrastructure investment would decrease from 20% of the total person’s compensation to 5% as the farmers increasingly use alternative income sources. The EC includes compensation for individual, infrastructure, and environmental investments. The total EC for Bangui would be 305,064 × 104 yuan during the 20 years.

A Simplified Approach for Implementing Capital Gain Tax in Stock Marketing  [PDF]
Sivarajah Mylevaganam
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.613076
Abstract: The sustainability of a country inevitably depends on proper taxation system. To date, there are many taxes implemented by the ruling authorities of a country. The taxes that are sourced from stock markets or share markets are paramount to better govern a country. The capital gain tax (CGT), which is incurred in disposing the shares or stocks owned by an investor or an institution, is one of the taxes implemented in stock markets. Though in the past many attempts have been made to properly streamline the CGT, the methodologies or the approaches used in the implementation of CGT, even in the United States, are not well-grounded from a scientific point of view. Therefore, in this paper, a simplified approach based on the assumption that the CGT is implemented on a yearly basis is proposed. The CGT is calculated for each stock owned by an investor or an institution. The approach is implemented using an open access platform: AMP (Apache-MySQL-PHP). Subsequently, the proposed approach is tested using some hypothetical data. The proposed approach, which is easy-to-use, practical and un-biased, is of use to any country that is willing to progress towards the sustainability. Moreover, the proposed approach with the current technology will enhance the developing nations which have large size of informal economy, on designing and implementing effective tax policies and administrations.
Did We Get Our Money’s Worth? Bridging Economic and Behavioral Measures of Program Success in Adolescent Drug Prevention
Kevin N. Griffith,Lawrence M. Scheier
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph10115908
Abstract: The recent U.S. Congressional mandate for creating drug-free learning environments in elementary and secondary schools stipulates that education reform rely on accountability, parental and community involvement, local decision making, and use of evidence-based drug prevention programs. By necessity, this charge has been paralleled by increased interest in demonstrating that drug prevention programs net tangible benefits to society. One pressing concern is precisely how to integrate traditional scientific methods of program evaluation with economic measures of “cost efficiency”. The languages and methods of each respective discipline don’t necessarily converge on how to establish the true benefits of drug prevention. This article serves as a primer for conducting economic analyses of school-based drug prevention programs. The article provides the reader with a foundation in the relevant principles, methodologies, and benefits related to conducting economic analysis. Discussion revolves around how economists value the potential costs and benefits, both financial and personal, from implementing school-based drug prevention programs targeting youth. Application of heterogeneous costing methods coupled with widely divergent program evaluation findings influences the feasibility of these techniques and may hinder utilization of these practices. Determination of cost-efficiency should undoubtedly become one of several markers of program success and contribute to the ongoing debate over health policy.
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