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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3061 matches for " milk adulteration "
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Study of Calcium and Sodium Behavior to Identify Milk Adulteration Using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  [PDF]
Poliana M. dos Santos, Lenon F. B. Costa, Edenir R. Pereira-Filho
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2012.39161
Abstract: A fast and direct method for determination of milk adulteration by monitoring of calcium and sodium concentrations variations was described. Milk samples were furnished by a dairy company located at S?o Carlos (S?o Paulo State, Brazil) and and spiked with tap-water, whey, hydrogen peroxide, synthetic urine, urea and synthetic milk in the ranged from 5% to 50% (v/v), expect for caustic soda. Caustic soda was added in the milk until establish the original pH. The milk samples were analyzed by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and no acid digestion process was required. Results showed a significant decrease in the Na and Ca concentrations with addition of synthetic milk and tap-water, a nonlinear variation with addition of synthetic urine, whey and hydrogen peroxide and a largest increase in the Na concentration with addition of NaOH. Correlation between Na and Ca concentrations in pure and adulterated milk were evaluated by paired t-test at a 95% confidence level. Results showed that the method proposed is efficient to identify samples adulterated with tap-water, caustic soda, synthetics milk and urine.
Detection of Glucomacropeptide in Raw Milk Adulterated with Cheese Whey in Ecuador  [PDF]
Byron Humberto Puga-Torres, Samantha Michele Morales-Arciniega, Luis Fabián Nú?ez Naranjo, David Isaías De la Torre-Duque, Rolando Martin Campos-Vallejo, Silvana Hipatia Santander-Parra, Enrique César Vayas-Machado
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.86040
Abstract: Milk is one of the products that can be adulterated in many ways affecting the quality of this and its derivatives. Glucomacropeptide (GMP) is a protein that is found only in the whey from the production of fresh cheese, enzymatically obtained from the coagulation of casein and which is commonly used to adulterate fresh or powdered milk. The aim of this study was to determine the adulteration of milk with cheese whey thought a molecular approach, where the glucomacropeptide was collected by sequential precipitation with trichloroacetic acid (ATC) and detected by polyacrylamidododecylsulfate gel electrophoresis (PAGE-SDS), using samples of fresh milk, intentionally adulterated with serum in the proportion of 0%, 1%, 5%, 10% and 15%. The results obtained showed that the detection of glucomacropeptide by electrophoresis was positive in all samples of adulterated milk, evidencing a band of 20.9 kDa in the reading, corresponding to the molecular weight of the GMP, showing that the technique used determines the adulteration in the milk, in a specific and sensitive way, also shows that in the evaluation of physical-chemical and microbiological parameters of milk, there are no significant differences between treatments, except for the pH that tends to decrease as the percentage of serum in the milk increases.
Control of Ewe and Goat Cheeses Labelling on the Croatian Market  [PDF]
Jasminka ?poljari?, Dijana Plavljani?, Biljana Radeljevi?, Iva Horvat Kesi?, Neven Antunac, Jasmina Havranek, Nata?a Mikulec
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.84026
Abstract: The aim of the research was to examine ewe and goat cheese labelling on the market of the Republic of Croatia. During the four years (2012-2016) of the research, 133 cheeses from retail supermarket chains were selected by the random-choice method by the responsible inspection of the Republic of Croatia and analysed at the Reference Laboratory for Milk and Dairy Products of the Department of Dairy Science at the Faculty of Agriculture University of Zagreb. To check the correct labelling of cheeses, the chemical composition of cheese was examined: the fat content, the dry matter content, the fat in dry matter content, and the water content in the fat-free cheese compound were calculated according to the Ordinance on Cheeses and Cheese Products, which refers to cheeses manufactured in the Republic of Croatia, and Regulation EU (2011) of the European Parliament and the Council on providing information to consumers about food products, which covers foreign cheeses. The presence of cow milk in cheeses labelled as products manufactured exclusively from ewe or goat milk was tested by the reference method using iso-electric focusing to determine any adulteration according to Commission Regulation (2008). The results of analysis in this research show the condition of the quality and correct labelling of ewe and goat cheeses on the market of the Republic of Croatia. Of the 133 cheeses analysed, 67 cheeses (50%) did not correspond to the values stated on the declaration or to legal regulations, while the presence of cow milk was found in 30% of the cheeses analysed. The research results indicate the need to carry out continuous systematic control in the interest of protecting consumers and those manufacturers who are following good manufacturing practices.
Kinetic Determination of Urea in Milk Powder by Nonlinear Chemical Fingerprint Technique  [PDF]
Yongjie Ma, Wenbin Dong, Hongliang Bao, Cheng Fan, Yue Fang, Shipeng Wang
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.77051
Abstract: To detect urea content in milk powder, a nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique was developed. In our study, Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillatory chemical reaction (B-Z) was performed using milk powder and malonic acid as main dissipative substances. The same dosage of milk powder with or without artificially added urea was introduced to “H+ + Ce4+ + + malonic acid” oscillating system, respectively, and nonlinear chemical fingerprints of different milk powder were thus obtained. The proposed method was based on a linear relationship between inductive time of non-linear chemical fingerprints and urea content in milk powder, which held when urea content in milk powder was in the range of 0 - 40 mg/g. A detection limit of 7.8 × 10-3mg/g was also obtained. Our results showed that the method could be used to certify urea content in milk powder without pretreatment of samples, which was more simple and economical compared with traditional methods.
Adulteration and Microbiological Quality of Milk (A Review)
Ali Afzal,M.S. Mahmood,Iftikhar Hussain,Masood Akhtar
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2011,
Abstract: Milk is very valuable food, readily digested and absorbed. It consists of nutrients, which are needed for proper growth and maintenance of body. Milk and milk products form a significant part of the diet and a substantial amount of our food expenditures goes on milk and other dairy products. In Pakistan, milk is transported from the point of production to consumers and processing plants by middlemen called Gawalas. They dont maintain proper hygienic conditions during this transport, which leads to increase the total viable bacterial count. They also adulterate milk to increase their profit margin by several chemicals like urea, starch, flour, cane sugar, vegetable oils, detergents etc. Various preservatives like formalin and some antibiotics are also added in milk to increase its shelf life. This addition decreases the nutritive value of milk. These adulterants, preservatives and drugs in milk cause very serious health related problems.
Methods for determination of milk and cheese adulteration by other milk types
Sonja Damjanovi?,Dubravka Samar?ija,Jasmina Havranek
Mljekarstvo , 2006,
Abstract: In the world milk production, the contribution of goat, ovine, buffalo and other types of milk is small, compared to the cows' milk. Because of great availability, cows' milk is often used for adulteration of other milk types and dairy products. Due to adulteration, food characteristics are changed. Several analytical techniques were reported in the literature for the detection of milk and dairy products adulteration. Most of them are based on detection of milk protein fractions. Methods based on milk fat composition, such as profiles of triglycerides and ratios of distinct fatty acids, as well as polymerase chain reaction for detection of specific DNA sequences of species are also used. In this paper advantages and disadvantages of different methods (electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, ELISA method, capillary electro-phoresis, chromatography, mass spectrometry, PCR) which are used for the species detection of milk and cheese are described.
Electrophoretic analisys to detect and quantify additional whey in milk and dairy beverages
SOUZA, Elizabeth Maria Talá de;ARRUDA, Sandra Fernandes;BRAND?O, Patrícia Oliveira;SIQUEIRA, Egle Machado de Almeida;
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-20612000000300007
Abstract: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, sds-page system, was adjusted to detect the presence of additional whey in dairy beverages distributed in a brazilian government school meals program. aqueous solutions of samples in 8 m urea were submitted to a polyacrylamide gel gradient (10% to 18%). gel scans from electrophoresis patterns of previously adulterated milk samples showed that caseins peak areas decreased while peak areas of b -lactoglobulin plus a -lactalbumin increased as the percentage of raw milk powder replaced by whey powder increased. the relative densitometer areas of caseins or b -lactoglobulin plus a -lactalbumin plotted against the percentage of whey added to the raw milk showed a linear correlation coefficient square higher than 0.97. the caseins plot was used to determine the percentage of additional whey in 116 dairy beverages, chocolate or coffee flavor. considering that the lowest relative caseins concentration found in commercial milk powder samples by the present method was 72%, the dairy beverages containing caseins percentages equal to or higher than this value were considered free of additional whey. based on this criterion, about 49% of the coffee-flavor dairy beverages and 29% of the chocolate-flavor beverages, among all the samples analyzed were adulterated with whey protein to reach the total protein contents specified on their labels. the present method showed a sensitivity of 5% to additional whey.
MELAMINA. UN PROBLEMA POTENCIAL PARA LA SALUD ANIMAL Y HUMANA COMO ADULTERANTE EN LOS ALIMENTOS CON éNFASIS EN LA LECHE
Escobar,A; Faure,R; Sosa,Dayana; Ponce,P; Vega,S;
Revista de Salud Animal , 2010,
Abstract: melamine is a chemical substance used in the manufacturing of plastics, which added to the milk constitutes a risk for human and animal health, if it is consumed. the presence of melamine in the milk or another food can happen in a natural way, by adulteration or metabolic transformation of the pesticide cyromazine. in the present review, the antecedents of melamine adulteration in foods are showed, the toxicological aspects and a compilation of criteria from different experts about the advantages and disadvantages of the analytic methodology for the melamine determination in foods are analyzed. cenlac department from the national center for animal and plant health (censa), has implemented an analytic methodology which facilitates to detect adulteration problems and the presence of residuals and contaminants in milk allowing the evaluation of food safety.
Analytical methods for the species identification of milk and milk products
Peter Zachar,Michal ?oltés,Radovan Kasarda,Jaroslav Novotny
Mljekarstvo , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this article is to point out the importance of milk and dairy product authentication with particular focus on the application of analytical methods to detect adulteration.The production of sheep and goat milk has considerable economic importance resulting from the widespread acceptance of traditional cheeses, many made exclusively of pure sheep milk. Fraudulent incorporation of nondeclared kind of milk during technological processing is a common practice that can cause a problem for reasons related to intolerance or allergy, religious, ethical or cultural objections, and legal requirements. Unfortunately, fraudulent substitution of sheep and goat milk with the cheaper cow milk is a common practice and for the detection of mutual adulteration various methods have been reviewed, such as immunological, electrophoretic, chromatographic, and PCR techniques.
Electrophoretic analisys to detect and quantify additional whey in milk and dairy beverages
SOUZA Elizabeth Maria Talá de,ARRUDA Sandra Fernandes,BRAND?O Patrícia Oliveira,SIQUEIRA Egle Machado de Almeida
Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos , 2000,
Abstract: Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE system, was adjusted to detect the presence of additional whey in dairy beverages distributed in a Brazilian Government School Meals Program. Aqueous solutions of samples in 8 M urea were submitted to a polyacrylamide gel gradient (10% to 18%). Gel scans from electrophoresis patterns of previously adulterated milk samples showed that caseins peak areas decreased while peak areas of beta -lactoglobulin plus alpha -lactalbumin increased as the percentage of raw milk powder replaced by whey powder increased. The relative densitometer areas of caseins or beta -lactoglobulin plus alpha -lactalbumin plotted against the percentage of whey added to the raw milk showed a linear correlation coefficient square higher than 0.97. The caseins plot was used to determine the percentage of additional whey in 116 dairy beverages, chocolate or coffee flavor. Considering that the lowest relative caseins concentration found in commercial milk powder samples by the present method was 72%, the dairy beverages containing caseins percentages equal to or higher than this value were considered free of additional whey. Based on this criterion, about 49% of the coffee-flavor dairy beverages and 29% of the chocolate-flavor beverages, among all the samples analyzed were adulterated with whey protein to reach the total protein contents specified on their labels. The present method showed a sensitivity of 5% to additional whey.
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