Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Any time

2019 ( 10 )

2018 ( 45 )

2017 ( 45 )

2016 ( 45 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 801 matches for " mid-rise "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /801
Display every page Item
A Comparative Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment of Mid-Rise Office Building Construction Alternatives: Laminated Timber or Reinforced Concrete
Adam B. Robertson,Frank C. F. Lam,Raymond J. Cole
Buildings , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/buildings2030245
Abstract: The objective of this project was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts associated with alternative designs for a typical North American mid-rise office building. Two scenarios were considered; a traditional cast-in-place, reinforced concrete frame and a laminated timber hybrid design, which utilized engineered wood products (cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glulam). The boundary of the quantitative analysis was cradle-to-construction site gate and encompassed the structural support system and the building enclosure. Floor plans, elevations, material quantities, and structural loads associated with a five-storey concrete-framed building design were obtained from issued-for-construction drawings. A functionally equivalent, laminated timber hybrid design was conceived, based on Canadian Building Code requirements. Design values for locally produced CLT panels were established from in-house material testing. Primary data collected from a pilot-scale manufacturing facility was used to develop the life cycle inventory for CLT, whereas secondary sources were referenced for other construction materials. The TRACI characterization methodology was employed to translate inventory flows into impact indicators. The results indicated that the laminated timber building design offered a lower environmental impact in 10 of 11 assessment categories. The cradle-to-gate process energy was found to be nearly identical in both design scenarios (3.5 GJ/m 2), whereas the cumulative embodied energy (feedstock plus process) of construction materials was estimated to be 8.2 and 4.6 GJ/m 2 for the timber and concrete designs, respectively; which indicated an increased availability of readily accessible potential energy stored within the building materials of the timber alternative.
Dynamic Time History Analysis for Mid-rise Cold-formed Thin-walled Steel Residential Building System

- , 2018,
Abstract: 在采用有限元方法验证三层冷弯薄壁型钢房屋振动台试验结果的基础上,建立了多层冷弯薄壁型钢结构住宅空间整体模型,分析了模型前3阶自振频率、振型以及双向地震作用下的加速度、位移响应和水平地震剪力,考察了多层房屋的抗震性能。结果表明:《低层冷弯薄壁型钢房屋建筑技术规程》推荐的基频计算方法适用于多层冷弯薄壁型钢结构体系;随着输入地震波峰值加速度的增加,模型各层加速度幅值、相对位移和最大剪重比均增大,而各层峰值加速度放大系数有降低的趋势;随着结构高度的增加,模型各层峰值加速度放大系数、相对位移和最大剪重比均增大;多层冷弯薄壁型钢结构体系在多遇地震和罕遇地震作用下结构??X??向和??Y??向的水平地震剪力和最大层间位移角满足《建筑抗震设计规范》的要求,具备较好的抗震性能。
The spatial models of mid-rise cold-formed thin-walled steel residential building were established based on the shaking table test results of three-storey cold-formed thin-walled steel building verified by finite element method. In order to investigate seismic performance of mid??rise building, the first three natural frequencies and vibration modes as well as acceleration response, displacement response and horizontal seismic shear under bidirectional earthquake action were conducted on spatial finite element models. The results show that the fundamental frequency calculation method recommended in Technical Specification for Low-rise Cold-formed Thin-walled Steel Buildings is appropriate for mid-rise cold-formed thin??walled steel structural system. The acceleration amplitude, relative displacement and maximum shear-weight ratio of each floor raise with the increase of seismic-wave acceleration amplitude, while the peak acceleration amplification coefficient of each floor decreases. Moreover, the peak acceleration amplification coefficient, relative displacement and maximum shear weight ratio of each floor raise with the increase of structural height. The horizontal seismic shear force and maximum story-drift ratio of mid-rise cold-formed thin-walled steel structural system in X and Y direction under frequently earthquake and rare earthquake are satisfied with the requirement of Code for Seismic Design of Buildingswhich demonstrating that this structural system [JP2]has better seismic behavior
- , 2017, DOI: 10.11918/j.issn.0367-6234.201701036
Abstract: 多层强边柱冷成型钢结构能够促进低层冷成型钢结构向多层住宅结构体系的发展.为了分析多层强边柱冷成型钢住宅结构体系在地震作用下的动力特性,本文提出了该类结构的主要抗侧构件强边柱冷成型钢组合墙体可以考虑节点实际连接性能的简化计算模型,进而得到整体结构抗震计算模型;根据作者前期开展的墙体抗剪试验结果并结合国外规范,提出此类结构在地震作用下的侧向变形验算指标;对整体结构进行抗震性能研究.结果表明:考虑节点连接的等代拉压杆模型能够准确预测此类结构的实际受力特性;将1/300和1/75分别作为此类结构在多遇和罕遇地震作用下的层间位移角限值是安全可靠的;在9度罕遇地震作用下,此类结构不会发生倒塌破坏;进行此类结构设计时,不宜采用两个方向刚度差异过大的抗剪墙体组合,同时应重点加强结构沿墙体开洞率较大方向的墙体抗剪强度;在特别高烈度地区进行此类结构设计时,应兼顾墙体抗剪强度和墙体边柱的竖向承载能力,避免结构因墙体边柱的压屈破坏而导致整体结构失效.
Mid-rise cold-formed steel (CFS) structure with reinforced end studs can promote the development of mid-rise CFS residential buildings from low-rise ones. To analyze the dynamic characteristics of mid-rise CFS residential structures with reinforced end studs under earthquakes, a simplified calculation model of CFS shear wall with reinforced end studs, which is the main lateral load-bearing structural component of the structure, was proposed. The proposed model could consider the real behavior of beam-column joint, and then the seismic calculation model of the whole structure was further obtained. Lateral design objectives for the structure under earthquake were proposed according to abroad specification and previous shear wall test results that performed by authors, and seismic analysis on a mid-rise CFS structure with reinforced end studs was carried out. The results show that equivalent-bracing model considering the mechanical behavior of beam-column joint can precisely predict the seismic performance of the structure. It is safe and reliable that 1/300 and 1/75 being taken as the elastic and inelastic storey drift limits of the structure under frequent and severe earthquake, respectively. Mid-rise CFS structure with reinforced end studs will not collapse under severe earthquake with a degree of 9. It is not suitable to adopt shear wall combination with large difference in stiffness between two directions, and the shear strength of the walls along the direction with larger opening rate should be strengthened emphatically. In areas of particularly high seismicity, both shear strength of the wall and vertical bearing capacity of end studs should be taken into account to avoid overall failure, which is caused by end studs' buckling.
- , 2016, DOI: 10.11918/j.issn.0367-6234.2016.06.001
Abstract: 轻钢结构是天然的绿色建筑,也是天然的工业化建筑.中国人口众多,土地资源紧张,地震灾害严重,因此发展多层冷成型钢房屋建筑符合中国国情.将低层冷成型钢结构体系拓展至多层结构,存在4个主要技术难点.课题组通过结构体系与主要部件两个层面的改进,提出了多层冷成型钢龙骨式复合剪力墙结构体系及其两个重要部件——冷成型钢托梁龙骨-ALC板组合楼盖和带有夹心墙板单元的轻钢龙骨式复合墙体.还针对该新型体系的抗侧、抗火等基础理论问题,阐述了课题组研究进展及国内外同行的相关研究工作.最后,从宏观角度指出了该新型体系尚需开展的研究工作.
Cold-formed steel structures are natural green and industrialized buildings. Due to the large population, shortage of land resource, as well as serious earthquake disasters, the development of mid-rise cold-formed steel structure becomes very consistent with Chinese national conditions. At present, there are four major technical difficulties existed in the expansion of low-rise cold-formed steel structure systems to mid-rise buildings. Based on the investigation and improvement on the structure system and major components, a new mid-rise cold-formed steel framed composite shear wall structure system was proposed, and two important components of the new structure system were developed, including a composite floor system combining cold-formed steel joists with autoclaved lightweight concrete slabs and cold-formed steel shear wall with sandwich panel units. This paper also reviewed our and other researchers’ latest investigation on some fundamental theory problems, such as the lateral and fire resistances of the new structure system et al. Finally, the author points out some research work need to be conducted for the new structure system from a macroscopic perspective.
Lava Geochemistry as a Probe into Crustal Formation at the East Pacific Rise
Michael R. Perfit,V. Dorsey Wanless,W. Ian Ridley,Emily M. Klein
Oceanography , 2012,
Abstract: Basalt lavas comprise the greatest volume of volcanic rocks on Earth, and most of them erupt along the world's mid-ocean ridges (MORs). These MOR basalts (MORBs) are generally thought to be relatively homogeneous in composition over large segments of the global ridge system (e.g., Klein, 2005). However, detailed sampling of two different regions on the northern East Pacific Rise (EPR) and extensive analysis of the samples show that fine-scale mapping and sampling of the ridge axis can reveal significant variations in lava chemistry on both small spatial and short temporal scales. The two most intensely sampled sites within the EPR Integrated Study Site (ISS) lie on and off axis between 9°17'N and 10°N, and from a wide region centered around 9°N where two segments of the EPR overlap (see Fornari et al., 2012, Figure 3, in this issue). The chemical composition of erupted lavas, similar to the genotype of an organism, can be used by igneous petrologists to trace the evolution of magmas from the mantle to the seafloor. The extensive and detailed geochemical studies at the EPR highlight how a thorough understanding of the variability in lava compositions on small spatial scales (i.e., between lava flows) and large spatial scales (i.e., from segment center to segment end and including discontinuities in the ridge crest) can be used in combination with seafloor photography, lava morphology, and bathymetry to provide insights into the magmatic system that drives volcanism and influences hydrothermal chemistry and biology at a fast-spreading MOR.
Response of rice cultivation to fluctuating sea level during the Mid-Holocene
YunFei Zheng,GuoPing Sun,XueGao Chen
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-011-4786-3
Abstract: Archaeological analysis of a section of ancient rice fields at Tianluoshan for diatoms, seeds and phytoliths has shown that the highest local sea level in eastern China during the Holocene appeared before 7.0 ka BP. Entering the Mid-Holocene, as seawater regressed, a vast wetland plain appeared in the coastal area, where farmers of the Neolithic Hemudu culture cultivated rice. However, there were still several sea-level fluctuations in the Mid-Holocene, of which the biggest were from 6.4 to 6.3 ka BP and from 4.6 to 2.1 ka BP. In addition, in the period dominated by wetland grass vegetation, 6.3 to 4.6 ka BP, smaller fluctuations apparently pushed the coastline back on to the land. Even though the sea-level rises associated with these shoreline transgressions did not have the intensity of the highest sea level period, there still would have been profound impacts on the lives and production activities of people living in the region. Archaeological evidence from ancient rice fields at Tianluoshan shows that larger sea-level rise events pushed seawater onto the land and inundated large areas of rice fields, whereas weaker sea-level rise events resulted in the intrusion of seawater along rivers, causing an increase in soil salinity and a decrease in rice yields. The impact of sea-level rise on rice cultivation caused changes in local diet. In regions where rice production fell, the prevalence of gathering and hunting rose. High sea levels in the early Holocene imply that the origin of rice cultivation in the eastern coastal plain is likely to have been in small nearby mountain basins.
A Vent-Field-Scale Model of the East Pacific Rise 9°50'N Magma-Hydrothermal System
Robert P. Lowell,Aida Farough,Leonid N. Germanovich,Laura B. Hebert
Oceanography , 2012,
Abstract: This paper describes a two-limb single-pass modeling approach constrained by vent temperature, heat flow, vent geochemistry, active-source seismology, and seismically inferred circulation geometry to provide first-order constraints on crustal permeability, conductive boundary layer thickness, fluid residence times, and magma replenishment rates for the magma-hydrothermal system at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) near 9°50'N. Geochemical data from black smokers and nearby diffuse-flow patches, as well as an estimate of heat flow partitioning, suggest that nearly 90% of the heat output stems from heat supplied by the subaxial magma chamber, even though almost 90% of that output appears as diffuse flow at the seafloor. Estimates of magma replenishment rates are consistent with the evolution of lava chemistry over the eruption cycle between 1991–1992 and 2005–2006. If the recharge surface area is 105 m2, a one-dimensional model of hydrothermal recharge using EPR 9°50'N parameters gives rise to rapid sealing as a result of anhydrite precipitation; however, if the area of recharge widens at depth to ~ 106 m2, sealing by anhydrite precipitation may not significantly affect hydrothermal circulation.
The East Pacific Rise Between 9°N and 10°N: Twenty-Five Years of Integrated, Multidisciplinary Oceanic Spreading Center Studies
Daniel J. Fornari,Karen L. Von Damm,Julia G. Bryce,James P. Cowen
Oceanography , 2012,
Abstract: The East Pacific Rise from ~ 9–10°N is an archetype for a fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge. In particular, the segment near 9°50'N has been the focus of multidisciplinary research for over two decades, making it one of the best-studied areas of the global ridge system. It is also one of only two sites along the global ridge where two historical volcanic eruptions have been observed. This volcanically active segment has thus offered unparalleled opportunities to investigate a range of complex interactions among magmatic, volcanic, hydrothermal, and biological processes associated with crustal accretion over a full magmatic cycle. At this 9°50'N site, comprehensive physical oceanographic measurements and modeling have also shed light on linkages between hydrodynamic transport of larvae and other materials and biological dynamics influenced by magmatic processes. Integrated results of high-resolution mapping, and both in situ and laboratory-based geophysical, oceanographic, geochemical, and biological observations and sampling, reveal how magmatic events perturb the hydrothermal system and the biological communities it hosts.
Chemistry, Temperature, and Faunal Distributions at Diffuse-Flow Hydrothermal Vents: Comparison of Two Geologically Distinct Ridge Systems
George W. Luther III,Amy Gartman,Mustafa Yücel,Andrew S. Madison
Oceanography , 2012,
Abstract: Diffuse-flow, low-temperature areas near hydrothermal vents support life via chemosynthesis: hydrogen sulfide (and other reduced chemical compounds) emanating from the subsurface is oxidized with bottom-water oxygen through bacterial mediation to fix carbon dioxide and produce biomass. This article reviews the in situ diffuse-flow chemistry (mainly H2S and O2) and temperature data collected in 2006 and 2009 along the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC), and from 2004 to 2008 at 9°N along the East Pacific Rise (9 N EPR), predominantly around macrofauna that contain endosymbionts at these two hydrothermal vent regions. More than 48,000 and 20,000 distinct chemical and temperature data points were collected with a multi-analyte electrochemical analyzer in the diffuse-flow waters at 9 N EPR and the ELSC, respectively. Despite their different geological settings and different macrofauna (two different species of snails and mussels at the ELSC versus two different species of tubeworms and mussels at 9 N EPR), there are similarities in the temperature and chemistry data, as well as in the distributions of organisms. The pattern of water chemistry preferred by the provannid snails (Alviniconcha spp., Ifremeria nautilei) and Bathymodiolus brevior at the ELSC is similar to the water chemistry pattern found for the siboglinid tubeworms (Tevnia jerichonana, Riftia pachyptila) and the Bathymodiolus thermophilus mussels at 9 N EPR. The eruptions at 9 N EPR in 2005 and 2006 resulted in increased H2S concentrations, increased H2S/T ratios, and an initial change in the dominant tubeworm species from Riftia pachyptila to Tevnia jerichonana after the eruption created new vent habitats. In 2005, two sites at 9 N EPR showed major increases in the H2S/T ratio from 2004, which suggested a probable eruption in this basalt-dominated system. At the ELSC, there was a decrease in the H2S/T ratio from northern to southern sites, which reflects the change in geological setting from basalt to andesite and the shallower water depths at the southern sites.
Recent Seismic Studies at the East Pacific Rise 8°20'–10°10'N and Endeavour Segment: Insights into Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal and Magmatic Processes
Suzanne M. Carbotte,Juan Pablo Canales,Mladen R. Nedimovi?,Hélène Carton
Oceanography , 2012,
Abstract: As part of the suite of multidisciplinary investigations undertaken by the Ridge 2000 Program, new multichannel seismic studies of crustal structure were conducted at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) 8°20'–10°10'N and Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. These studies provide important insights into magmatic systems and hydrothermal flow in these regions, with broader implications for fast- and intermediate-spreading mid-ocean ridges. A mid-crust magma body is imaged beneath Endeavour Segment underlying all known vent fields, suggesting that prior notions of a tectonically driven hydrothermal system at this site can be ruled out. There is evidence at both sites that the axial magma body is segmented on a similar 5–20 km length scale, with implications for the geometry of high-temperature axial hydrothermal flow and for lava geochemistry. The new data provide the first seismic reflection images of magma sills in the crust away from the axial melt lens. These off-axis magma reservoirs are the likely source of more-evolved lavas typically sampled on the ridge flanks and may be associated with off-axis hydrothermal venting, which has recently been discovered within the EPR site. Clusters of seismic reflection events at the base of the crust are observed, and localized regions of thick Moho Transition Zone, with frozen or partially molten gabbro lenses embedded within mantle rocks, are inferred. Studies of the upper crust on the flanks of Endeavour Segment provide new insights into the low-temperature hydrothermal flow that continues long after crustal formation. Precipitation of alteration minerals due to fluid flow leads to changes in P-wave velocities within seismic Layer 2A (the uppermost layer of the oceanic crust) that vary markedly with extent of sediment blanketing the crust. In addition, intermediate-scale variations in the structure of Layers 2A and 2B with local topography are observed that may result from topographically driven fluid upflow and downflow on the ridge flanks.
Page 1 /801
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.