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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1095 matches for " methoxypoly( ethylene glycol) "
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Polymer-mediated immunocamouflage of red blood cells: Effects of polymer size on antigenic and immunogenic recognition of allogeneic donor blood cells
DunCheng Wang,Dana L. Kyluik,Kari L. Murad,Wendy M. Toyofuku,Mark D. Scott
Science China Life Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-011-4190-x
Abstract: Developing a practical means of reducing alloimmunization in chronically transfused patients would be of significant clinical benefit. Immunocamouflaging red blood cells (RBCs) by membrane grafting of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) may reduce the risk of allo-immunization. The results of this study showed that antibody recognition of non-ABO antigens was significantly reduced in an mPEG-dose- and polymer size-dependent manner, with higher molecular weight mPEGs providing better immunoprotection. Furthermore, in vivo immunogenicity was significantly reduced in mice serially transfused with mPEG-modified xenogeneic (sheep; sRBCs), allogeneic (C57Bl/6), or syngeneic (Balb/c) RBCs. Following a primary transfusion of sRBCs, mice receiving mPEG-sRBCs showed a >90% reduction in anti-sRBC IgG antibody levels. After two transfusions, mice receiving mPEG-sRBCs showed reductions of >80% in anti-sRBC IgG levels. Importantly, mPEG-modified autologous cells did not induce neoantigens or an immune (IgG or IgM) response. These data suggest that the global immunocamouflage of RBCs by polymer grafting may provide a safe and cost-effective means of reducing the risk of alloimmunization.
Immunocamouflage of latex surfaces by grafted methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG): Proteomic analysis of plasma protein adsorption
Yevgeniya Le,Li Li,DunCheng Wang,Mark D. Scott
Science China Life Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-012-4290-2
Abstract: Grafting of methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) to cells and biomaterials is a promising non-pharmacological immunomodulation technology. However, due to the labile nature of cells, surface-plasma interactions are poorly understood; hence, a latex bead model was studied. PEGylation of beads resulted in a density and molecular weight dependent decrease in total adsorbed protein with a net reduction from (159.9±6.4) ng cm 2 on bare latex to (18.4±0.8) and (52.3±5.3) ng cm 2 on PEGylated beads (1 mmol L 1 of 2 or 20 kD SCmPEG, respectively). SDS-PAGE and iTRAQ-MS analysis revealed differential compositions of the adsorbed protein layer on the PEGylated latex with a significant reduction in the compositional abundance of proteins involved in immune system activation. Thus, the biological efficacy of immunocamouflaged cells and materials is mediated by both biophysical obfuscation of antigens and reduced surface-macromolecule interactions.
Interactive effect of combined exposure to ethylene glycol ethers and ethanol on hematological parameters in rats  [PDF]
Andrzej Starek, Katarzyna Miranowicz-Dzier?awska, Beata Starek-?wiechowicz
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.29155
Abstract: The study of the interaction of three glycol ethers, i.e. 2-methoxyethanol (ME), 2-ethoxyethanol (EE) and 2-butoxyethanol (BE) administered subcutaneously for 4 weeks and ethanol simultaneously given as 10% w/v solution for drinking in male rats, was carried out from a toxicodynamic point of view. Administered alone, ME (2.5 and 5.0 mM/kg), EE (2.5 and 5.0 mM/kg) or BE (0.75 and 1.25 mM/kg) resulted in a decrease of red blood cells (RBC), packed cell volumes (PCV), and hemoglobin concentration (HGB), as well as an increase in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and reticulocyte count (Ret). In the rats co-ex- posed to ethanol and EGAEs, a significantly less pronounced hematological changes in comparison with animal exposed to these ethers alone were seen. The rats simultaneously exposed to ethanol and both ME and EE at the lower dose demonstrated mainly protection from the alterations in leukocyte system. In contrast, in the rats which consumed ethanol and were simultaneously treated with the higher dose of ME or EE (5.0 mM/kg) the amelioration of same hematological parameters were displayed. The intake of ethanol along with BE treatment at both doses resulted in markedly ameliorated hematological parameters, compared to those which were changed by BE alone. In conclusion, the decrease of the hemolytic effects of EGAEs is ethanol dependent. Ethanol is a substrate of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and affinity of this enzyme to ethanol is greater than that to glycol ethers. It is possible that ethanol results in the change in EGAEs metabolism.
Synthesis and Characterisation of Silver Nanoparticles in Different Medium  [PDF]
G. Alagumuthu, R. Kirubha
Open Journal of Synthesis Theory and Applications (OJSTA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojsta.2012.12003
Abstract: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in different alcoholic medium such as ethylene glycol and n-butyl alcohol by solvothermal method. The nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by reducing silver nitrate with the above solvents in the presence of trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) as the capping agent at room temperature for 1 h. Electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and absorption spectra have been used to investigate the products, and the mechanism is proposed to interpret the controlled synthesis of the products. The results indicate that this approach provides a versatile route to prepare silver nanowires and nanoparticles with controllable diameters. The formation of nano products by this method is rapid, simple and stable.
Synthesis of ABA Type Block Copolymers of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) and Poly(Dodecyl Vinyl Ether) and Its Using as Surfactant in Emulsion Polymerization  [PDF]
Yesim Hepuzer Gursel, Ayfer Sarac, Bahire Filiz Senkal
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2014.51006

A poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based macroinitiator (MI) with terminal chloride atom at both ends was prepared by the reaction of PEG-400 with chloroacetyl chloride and used for the cationic polymerization of dodecyl vinyl ether (DVE) yielding ABA type block copolymer. The block copolymer was then used as the surfactant for the emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate and styrene in the presence of potassium persulfate as an initiator. The effects of new polymeric emulsifier on the physicochemical properties of obtained latexes were investigated depending on surfactant percentage in homopolymerizations.

Criopreserva??o do sêmen ovino em Pellets com etileno glicol
Moraes, Cácio do Nascimento;Neves, Jairo Pereira;Gon?alves, Paulo Bayard Dias;Oliveira, Jo?o Francisco Coelho de;Schweitzer, Cristine Marie;
Ciência Rural , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84781998000200018
Abstract: the aim of the present study was to verify the efficiency of ethylene glycol for freezing ram semen. a total of 16 pools of semen was used and each pool was divided in four fractions, which were frozen with ethylene glycol (in concentration of 0.3m, 0.5m or 0.7m) or glycerol (0.72m; control group). the percentage of motile spermatozoa after thawing (initial motility) and after 5 hour of incubation at 37°c (final motility) as well as the final sperm vigor were similar after freezing with ethylene glycol (0.5m) and glycerol (0.7 2m). the other concentrations of ethylene glycol resulted in lower sperm motility and vigor. however, ethylene glycol, in the concentration of 0.5m, was able to increase the number of sperm with intact acrosomes. seventy ewes were divided into three different treatments (ethylene glycol-0.5m, glycerol-0.72m and fresh semen). the estrous were synchronized and the ewes were inseminated by cervical technique. forty-five days after finishing the artificial insemination program, pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasound. the pregnancy rate was similar when the ethylene glycol treatment group was compared to the glycerol and fresh semen. however, the percentage of pregnancy was higher in the group of ewes inseminated with fresh semen than with semen frozen with glycerol (p<0.0003). considering these results, we can conclude that ethylene glycol in a concentration of 0.5m is efficient for freezing ram semen, allowing post-thaw sperm motility similar to glycerol (0.72m) but with higher number of intact acrosomes.
Etileno glicol na criopreserva??o de sêmen canino
Soares, Marcio Pereira;Rossi, Carlos Augusto Rigon;Mezzalira, Alceu;Cecim, Marcelo;
Ciência Rural , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782002000400017
Abstract: the objective of the present work was to evaluate the efficiency of ethylene glycol on criopreservation of canine semen, considering its possible deleterious effects upon semen motility, vigor and morphology at the pre and post freezing stages, using a tris-egg yolk extender. four adult german shepards were used as donors. samples were obtained by digital manipulation, and only ejaculates presenting a minimum of 90% motility and 5 (0-5) vigor and no more than 35% of total morphological defects were considered. ethylene glycol concentrations tested were 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0m and 0.80m glycerol served as control. motility and vigor were evaluated in the rich fraction, after first and second dilution, after 1 hour of stabilization at 4oc and after thawing. sperm morphology was examined in the fresh sample and after thawing in each of the treatments. there were no detectable differences among the groups in sperm motility and morphology after thawing. there were no differences in vigor among the 0.25, 0.50m ethylene glycol and the 0.8m glycerol, but the 1m ethylene glycol had lower vigor scores after thawing. we conclude that ethylene glycol can be used as a cryoprotectant in the concentration of 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0m instead of glycerol.
A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps
Matthew D Krasowski, Rebecca M Wilcoxon, Joel Miron
BMC Clinical Pathology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6890-12-1
Abstract: Electronic medical records from an academic tertiary care medical center were searched to identify all patients in the time period from January 1, 1996 to September 1, 2010 who had serum/plasma ethanol, glucose, sodium, blood urea nitrogen, and osmolality measured simultaneously, and also all patients who had GC analysis for toxic alcohols. Detailed chart review was performed on all patients with osmolal gap of 9 or greater.In the study period, 20,669 patients had determination of serum/plasma ethanol and osmolal gap upon presentation to the hospitals. There were 341 patients with an osmolal gap greater than 14 (including correction for estimated contribution of ethanol) on initial presentation to the medical center. Seventy-seven patients tested positive by GC for one or more toxic alcohols; all had elevated anion gap or osmolal gap or both. Other than toxic alcohols, the most common causes for an elevated osmolal gap were recent heavy ethanol consumption with suspected alcoholic ketoacidosis, renal failure, shock, and recent administration of mannitol. Only 9 patients with osmolal gap greater than 50 and no patients with osmolal gap greater than 100 were found to be negative for toxic alcohols.Our study concurs with other investigations that show that osmolal gap can be a useful diagnostic test in conjunction with clinical history and physical examination.Consumption of toxic alcohols other than ethanol continues to be a public health problem [1]. The most common toxic alcohols are ethylene glycol, isopropanol, and methanol. All three compounds are found in products that are easily obtained (ethylene glycol in most automobile antifreezes, isopropanol in 'rubbing alcohol', and methanol in windshield cleaner fluid and some other products). Ethylene glycol and methanol are particularly dangerous in overdose, due to their metabolites that can cause severe organ damage [1-6].Ethylene glycol is metabolized by a series of steps to glycolic acids and oxalic acid, the latt
Teratogenic Effect of Ethylene Glycol-Methyl Cellosolve Mixture in Rats.: I. Reproductive Damage
Arteaga-Martínez,Manuel; García-Peláez,Isabel; Aguirre-Luna,Oswaldo M; Saavedra-Ontiveros,Dolores;
International Journal of Morphology , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022010000400016
Abstract: we investigated the reproductive damage and teratogenic effect of an ethylene glycol-methyl cellosolve mixture on gestating wistar rats, which received a daily intraperitoneal dose of different concentration of the mixture on day 8 of gestation until day 20. in rats treated with the mixture the number of live fetuses decreased and reabsorptions increased with increasing concentrations of the mixture, as well as the number of abnormal fetuses. we conclude that the ethylene glycol-methyl cellosolve mixture possesses a higher teratogenic potential than each of its constituents separately, producing reproductive damage, external fetal abnormalities, growth delay, and increased fetal death.
Teratogenic Effect of Ethylene Glycol-Methyl Cellosolve Mixture in Rats: II. Craniofacial and Limb Abnormalities
García-Peláez,Isabel; Aguirre-Luna,Oswaldo M; Saavedra-Ontiveros,Dolores; Arteaga-Martínez,Manuel;
International Journal of Morphology , 2010, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022010000400030
Abstract: we investigated the teratogenic effect of an ethylene glycol-methyl cellosolve mixture on gestating wistar rats, that received a daily intraperitoneal dose of different concentration of the mixture on day 8 of gestation until day 20. multivariate analysis and post-hoc bonferroni tests were used and relative risk and attributable fraction were calculated. in rats treated with the mixture the number of live fetuses decreased and reabsorptions increased with increasing concentrations of the mixture, as well as the number of abnormal fetuses. abnormalities consisted mainly in atypical craniofacial morphology, protruding tongue, edema, signs of growth delay and shorter limbs, their frequency and severity increased at higher concentrations of the mixture. we conclude that the ethylene glycol-methyl cellosolve mixture possesses a higher teratogenic potential than each of its constituents separately, producing external fetal abnormalities, growth delay, and increased fetal death.
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