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Limits of Biotechnological Innovation  [PDF]
Kenneth Dimitri Satyagraha Fernald, Tamar Cheka Weenen, Kelsey Jean Sibley, Eric Claassen
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2013.43020
Abstract: During the past two decades the biopharmaceutical industry has been facing an innovation deficit, characterized by increasing research & development costs and stagnant productivity. From its inception, biotechnology has been expected to counter this deficit by its revolutionary science-based approach to drug discovery. For this study we gathered patent and product data related to the technological development of the first two biotechnologies: recombinant DNA technology and monoclonal antibody technology. We studied the technological lifecycles of these technologies in terms of scientific discoveries and inventions as well as product innovations. Results indicate that over the years inventions related to these technologies have simultaneously become less radical and less valuable. Furthermore, our analysis shows that these biotechnologies have reached a stage of technological limit or saturation, which may be followed by an innovation cliff. Now, more than ever, it is crucial to examine new strategies and opportunities for value creation, capturing, and delivery, within the biopharmaceutical industry.
A conceptual and empirical validation of the household lifecycle concept in South Africa
J. Van Rooyen,P. J. Du Plessis
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology , 2003, DOI: 10.4102/sajip.v29i3.107
Abstract: The family life cycle theory was used in the research as a tool for segmenting markets and developing marketing strategy. Households are not always family based and can take the form of single households, same gender households, and cohabiter-type households, each displaying distinctly different consumption behaviours. The researchers investigated whether the household life cycle theory is a valuable basis for segmentation in the South African environment. The results indicated that although the household life cycle theory has proven useful in differentiating between households in their consumption behaviour, it should not be used exclusively in segmenting markets due to the high level of within-stage heterogeneity. Opsomming Die gesinslewensikluskonsep is as ’n hulpmiddel gebruik in marksegmentering om bemarkingstrategie te ontwikkel. Huishoudings is egter nie altyd gesins-gebaseerd nie en kan bestaan uit enkel-, dieselde geslag-, en saamblyhuishoudings wat elkeen merkbare verskille kan toon ten opsigte van verbruikspatrone. Ondersoek is gedoen oor die huishoudingslewensiklusteorie as basis vir marksegmentering in die Suid-Afrikaanse omgewing. Die resultate dui daarop dat ofskoon die huishoudingslewensiklus bruikbaar is om tussen huishoudings te differensieer in terme van verbruiksgedrag, diè teorie nie uitsluitlik en in isolasie gebruik moet word nie vanwe die ho vlak van binne-stadium verskillendheid.
COCOMO based on Clean room Development Methodology
Mahesh Bahadur Singh,Hradesh Kumar,Anendra Kumar
International Journal of Computer Technology and Applications , 2011,
Abstract: The typical software lifecycle is about 40% design, 20% code, and 40% unit testing. The Clean room lifecycle is 80% design and 20% code and no unit test. And effort estimation using the COCOMO(constructive cost model) is based on the typical software lifecycle. In Detail COCOMO, Plan/requirement 6% to 8% (Effort); 10% to 40%(Time) Product Design 16% to 18% (Effort); 19% to 38% (Time) Programming 48% to 68% (Effort); 24% to 64% (Time) Integration/Test 16% to 34% (Effort); 24% to 64% (Time) is based on typical software development lifecycle model like Waterfall. When Clean room development methodology is used then these effort will be changed and some cost driver are also changed. We attempt to rectify this by promising a COCOMO-style effort model for Clean room software development methodology, thereby providing new insights into the economic impact of incremental approaches to software projects
Sustainable Services: the Natural Mimicry Approach  [PDF]
Adi Wolfson, Dorith Tavor, Shlomo Mark
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2011.42016
Abstract: Environmental issues have become an integral factor in any decision-making process and in the design and implemen-tation of manufacturing and agricultural production systems. As the service sector continuously grows in size and importance and service systems become more comprehensive, complex, and interdisciplinary, the creation of new services should be imbued with sustainability as the primary value of each service and as a service in and of itself. The paper presents a natural mimetic approach that follows the ground rules of nature to characterize the sustainability of a service and to choose the most sustainable service alternative.
Medical equipment in government health facilities: Missed opportunities
Pardeshi Geeta
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The availability and optimal utilization of medical equipment is important for improving the quality of health services. Significant investments are made for the purchase, maintenance and repair of medical equipment. Inadequate management of these equipment will result in financial losses and deprive the public of the intended benefits. This analysis is based on the conceptual framework drawn from the WHO recommended- lifecycle of medical equipment. AIMS: (1) To identify the problems in different stages of the life cycle. (2) To assess its financial implications and effect on service delivery. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Analysis of secondary data from the latest Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) Reports for the states in India. The study variables were category of equipment, financial implications and problems in the stages of life cycle. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Calculation of proportions. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of forty instances mentioning problems in the first phase of the life cycle of medical equipment were noted in 12 state reports. The equipment from the radiology department (15), equipment in the wards (5), laboratory (3) and operation theatres (4) were the ones most frequently implicated. In a majority of cases the financial implications amounted to twenty-five lakhs. The financial implications were in the form of extra expenditure, unfruitful expenditure or locking of funds. In 25 cases the equipment could not be put to use because of non-availability of trained staff and inadequate infrastructural support. Careful procurement, incoming inspection, successful installation and synchronization of qualified trained staff and infrastructural support will ensure timely onset of use of the equipment.
Systematic Review of Web Application Security Vulnerabilities Detection Methods  [PDF]
Sajjad Rafique, Mamoona Humayun, Zartasha Gul, Ansar Abbas, Hasan Javed
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2015.39004
Abstract: In recent years, web security has been viewed in the context of securing the web application layer from attacks by unauthorized users. The vulnerabilities existing in the web application layer have been attributed either to using an inappropriate software development model to guide the development process, or the use of a software development model that does not consider security as a key factor. Therefore, this systematic literature review is conducted to investigate the various security vulnerabilities used to secure the web application layer, the security approaches or techniques used in the process, the stages in the software development in which the approaches or techniques are emphasized, and the tools and mechanisms used to detect vulnerabilities. The study extracted 519 publications from respectable scientific sources, i.e. the IEEE Computer Society, ACM Digital Library, Science Direct, Springer Link. After detailed review process, only 56 key primary studies were considered for this review based on defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. From the review, it appears that no one software is referred to as a standard or preferred software product for web application development. In our SLR, we have performed a deep analysis on web application security vulnerabilities detection methods which help us to identify the scope of SLR for comprehensively investigation in the future research. Further in this SLR considering OWASP Top 10 web application vulnerabilities discovered in 2012, we will attempt to categories the accessible vulnerabilities. OWASP is major source to construct and validate web security processes and standards.
Information technology and communication and best practices in it lifecycle management
Paletta,Francisco Carlos; Dias Vieira Junior,Nilson;
Journal of technology management & innovation , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-27242008000200007
Abstract: in this work, we focus on the role of information and communication technologies - ict- to create additional sources of competitive advantage that can help companies to prepare themselves for sustainable growth in the long term. first, we discuss the dynamics of icts and the ability to generate innovations with a direct impact on business.then we present the need for greater balance between goals of short and long term on it projects. in the third part, we discuss how these new technologies have helped to increase the productivity of information professionals as well as to enhance decision-making process and the satisfaction of the end customer. to conclude, it is presented the main challenges that the technology-based companies will have to face in relation to the management of the lifecycle of their technology, consolidation and simplification of their processes within their computing environments, aiming to increase productivity and develop agile environments that allow the organizations to meet the demands of managing digital information.
Role of Project Manager from the Client’s Side on the Performance of a Construction Project
Shruti Wadalkar,S.S. Pimplikar
International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology , 2012,
Abstract: In the developing Country like India there are various small construction companies involved in building and real estate sector. In such company project management team plays a very important role in success of the project from Preformulation to the completion stage of the project. Such project management team mainly consists of project manager and project engineer or supervisor. As the project manager is the leader of this team, it is required by him to acquire all the skills required for the better performance of his role. In the present work, the correlation coefficient between delay in the work, project manager and contractor is determined. On the basis of value of the coefficient of correlation, required project manager skills and classification of skills are stated.
Information Technology and Communication and Best Practices in It Lifecycle Management
Francisco Carlos Paletta,Nilson Dias Vieira Junior
Journal of technology management & innovation , 2008,
Abstract: In this work, we focus on the role of Information and Communication Technologies – ICT - to create additional sources of competitive advantage that can help companies to prepare themselves for sustainable growth in the long term. First, we discuss the dynamics of ICTs and the ability to generate innovations with a direct impact on business. Then we present the need for greater balance between goals of short and long term on IT projects. In the third part, we discuss how these new technologies have helped to increase the productivity of information professionals as well as to enhance decision-making process and the satisfaction of the end customer. To conclude, it is presented the main challenges that the technology-based companies will have to face in relation to the management of the lifecycle of their technology, consolidation and simplification of their processes within their computing environments, aiming to increase productivity and develop agile environments that allow the organizations to meet the demands of managing digital information.
Feasibility Evaluation of Integrating UsabilityEngineering Issues in a Design for Multi-XCollaborative Framework  [PDF]
Stefano Filippi
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2011.31004
Abstract: Design for manufacturing, design for assembly, and, in general, design for X, are methods helping an effective generation of industrial products. In parallel with the development of these methods, the research about usability engineering has generated many important results, both from the design, and the evaluation and testing points of view. The research described in this paper aims at evaluating the feasibility of the integration of two new usability methods, the design for innovative usability - DFIU -, and the integrated method for usability evaluation and testing - IMUET -, in an existing design for X named design guidelines collaborative framework - DGLs-CF -. Indeed, the DGLs-CF is a design for multi-X method, given that it covers both the manufacturing and the verification phases of the industrial product lifecycle. All these methods are currently under development by the author’s research group. To evaluate this feasibility, the first task of the research aims at describing and classifying the components of the three methods. Next, these components are semantically related to each other. Finally, the last activity verifies the compatibility between the components of the two usability methods and the data structures of the DGLs-CF to check the feasibility from the implementation point of view. The result of this research will consist of precise indications both for the development of a design for multi-X collaborative framework covering homogeneously the design, manufacturing, verification, and use phases of the industrial product lifecycle, and to be used as a reference for researchers interested in considering the integration of usability issues in their design tools, methods, and processes.
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