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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5311 matches for " landscape ecology "
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Epistemological bases of landscape ecology
Lia Maris Orth Ritter,Rosemeri Segecin Moro
Journal of Biotechnology and Biodiversity , 2012,
Abstract: Landscape began to be cited as a scientific technical term in the nineteenth century. Since then it has been definedaccording to different philosophical references, where it is possible to see a clear dualism in its meaning. This is amatter of intense debate within the social and natural sciences: the physical geography proposes an understandingof the landscape as an ecological system, whereas the human geography turns to the interpretative vision. There areEuropean and North American roots of the ecological landscape, being the latter more recent (1980s), which isbased on ecosystem ecology and spatial modeling/analysis. Its development was favored by the advent of satelliteimagery and popularization of personal computers, therefore providing important resources for imaging and geostatisticalanalyzes. But still, there are different positions to be taken by the researcher working in this area.Metzger (2001) suggests adopting an integrated approach, where the ecological context and human action areconsidered and managed as mandatory elements in environmental dynamics. Our study aimed to list some of the keyconcepts of landscape considered by biologists in their research on landscape ecology.
Incorpora??o de indicadores de sustentabilidade na prioriza??o de áreas para restaura??o florestal na bacia do rio Corumbataí, SP
Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros;Paula, Felipe Rossetti de;Vettorazzi, Carlos Alberto;
Revista árvore , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-67622009000500016
Abstract: in the corumbataí river basin, state of s?o paulo, forest remnants occupy less than 3% of the original total area, and the absence of this natural vegetation has been increasing erosion and disturbing hydrological regime of its streams, causing many problems on water supply in urban areas like piracicaba and rio claro. this situation shows the need of a well planned reforestation in areas of this watershed. however, since the funds are limited, it is necessary a site selection study to use available fund on reforestation projects considering the maximum environmental gain. this study aims to develop a site selection method for reforestation based on sustainable indicators of catchments. five indicators were considered: native forest proportion in the permanent preservation areas (app); native forest discontinuity in the basin; mean variation of land-use; shannon landscape diversity index; and mean erosion susceptibility. catchment areas were selected using linear weighting of indicators and ranking of catchments. an initial simulation was made to select the best 1.000 ha for reforestation and the results showed that the indicators were able to capture distinct aspects of catchment sustainability. the method was considered useful for selecting catchments at extreme conditions, differentiating those that need conservation actions from those that need restoration actions.
Arntzen, S. and Brady, E. (eds.) 2008: Humans in the land. The ethics and aesthetics of the cultural landscape. Oslo: Unipub
Edward H. Huijbens
Nordicum-Mediterraneum , 2009,
Abstract:
Simulation Models and GIS Technology in Environmental Planning and Landscape Management  [PDF]
Giuliana Lauro
Journal of Geographic Information System (JGIS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2013.53028
Abstract:

Landscape protection that, in the past, has been mainly concerned with its historical, artistic and cultural heritage, follows, nowadays, a systemic methodology that looks at landscape as a high level aggregate of spatial, ecologically different units that interact each other by exchanging energy and materials. Strategic environmental assessment, nowadays, has been adopted in Europe in landscape planning, whose task is to verify the compatibility of territory transformations with respect to their levels of criticality and vulnerability, to evaluate possible future scenarios as consequence of interventions by checking if they are in line with preservation and valorization of environmental. To this aim, we make here a short survey of three different simulation models that can be used as Decision Support System in landscape planning and management. They adopt tools of the Landscape Ecology and are based on GIS (Geographic Information System) technology. The first one consists of a planar graph, the so called ecological graph, whose construction needs the computation of suitable indices of environmental control, proper of Landscape Ecology, such as biodiversity, biological territorial capacity, connectivity. The planar graph, for the considered environmental system, returns a picture of its actual ecological health condition and provides very detailed indications and operational assistance for choosing among possible ecological sustainable interventions. The second one, based on the data used to construct the ecological graph, uses the least-cost path algorithm from GIS technology in order to build an ecological network to prevent and to reduce territorial fragmentation caused by intense processes of urbanisation and industrialisation. At last, an integrated GIS-based approach is developed combining an ecological graph model and a mathematical model based on a nonlinear differential equation of logistic-type with harvesting to perform qualitative predictions on the sustainability of a given territorial plan.

Ecologia da paisagem da hantavirose no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul
Henkes, Waldir E.;Barcellos, Christovam;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822004000600016
Abstract: the aim of this work was to study the landscape ecology of hantavirosis in rio grande do sul state, brazil. this was achieved through geocoding the occurrence of cases and overlaying onto vegetation and relief maps. the majority of cases occurred during spring, in highland areas dominated by secondary vegetation and agricultural activity.
Análise da estrutura da paisagem de um remanescente de floresta com Araucária, Paraná, Brasil
Vidolin, Gisley Paula;Biondi, Daniela;Wandembruck, Adilson;
Revista árvore , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-67622011000300014
Abstract: the objective of this study was to analyze the landscape structure of lageado grande farm (lgf), an area of 3,136.32 ha located in general carneiro, palmas, state of tocantins, and bituruna, in the center-southern region of the state of paraná. the analysis was based on the landscape metrics of fragstats 3.3 software by using arc map 9.2 for the calculation of the proportion of the landscape connecting areas. the analysis showed that lgf had a predominantly forest soil cover matrix with native species; overall, the fragments were rectangular, that is, they were more subjected to border effects; there was a reduction of more than half of the original area of the farm, when border effect is considered, and the same class fragments were close to each other, favoring the structural connection of the landscape. the native forest fragments, even extensively and exploited, because of its forest continuity, can be considered areas of high value for biodiversity preservation.
LANDSCAPE: WHERE GEOGRAPHY AND ECOLOGY CONVERGE
Simone Rodrigues de Freitas
Holos Environment , 2003,
Abstract: The word landscape is old and popular. It has many senses from territory to scenery. Geography uses this concept since Humboldt, which pointed out its spatiality and its physical and cultural characteristics. The geographical approach of landscape concept emphasizes relationships between natural and cultural processes in a spatial portion. Depending on physical or cultural/symbolic approaches, one of both processes will prevail. In ecological approach, the main characteristics to define landscape are spatiality, heterogeneity and relationship between elements, including men or not. Here we propose a unified landscape concept defining it as a heterogeneous space portion where relationship between natural and cultural processes occur.
Ecological correlations in Pomorie cultural landscape Экологические корреляционные связи в поморском культурном ландшафте
Tatiana Krasovskaya
Cultural Geography & Geohumanities , 2012,
Abstract: The article focuses on the processes in traditional Pomorie (Arkhangelsk region, Russia) cultural landscape, that form correlations between its material and mental elements and at the same time stimulate the ecological sustainability of the landscape. Рассматриваются процессы в традиционном поморском культурном ландшафте, формирующие корреляционные связи между его материальными и духовными компонентами и обеспечивающие ему экологическую устойчивость.
Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors Establishment of a National ecological network to conserve biodiversity. Pros and cons of ecological corridors
Laurent Bergès, Philip Roche and Catherine Avon
Sciences Eaux & Territoires : la Revue du IRSTEA , 2011,
Abstract: Ecological corridors are a fundamental element in the National ecological network approved by the Grenelle environmental agreement in order to reduce ecosystem damage caused by fragmentation of the natural habitat zones of species. How can their effectiveness be evaluated? This article sums up current knowledge on their pros and cons. Fragmentation of natural habitats is considered one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. One of the proposed solutions to limit the effects of fragmentation is to restore ecological connectivity by creating ecological corridors between zones containing natural habitats. The concept remains controversial among scientists, but now serves as the basis for one of the operational projects of the Grenelle environmental agreements in the form of the National ecological network. After examining the ecological concepts justifying the political goal and presenting the various ecological roles of corridors, we briefly discuss their overall advantages and disadvantages. Then, we look closely at the methodological difficulties in detecting a corridor effect. Finally, we recommend a close partnership between research and policy to design biodiversity monitoring and evaluation systems in the different land-management plans.
The role of landscape pattern analysis in understanding concepts of land cover change

Jerry A GRIFFITH,

地理学报 , 2004,
Abstract:
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