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Influence of electrolytes on the controlled release of verapamil hydrochloride from HPMC K15M matrix tablets
Vidyadhara Suryadevara,Babu Janga,krishna Talamanchi
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2011,
Abstract: Verapamil hydrochloride was formulated as oral-controlled release matrix tablets using hydrophilic polymer such as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K 15 M (HPMC 15 M) along with electrolytes. In this work a new attempt was made for in situ interactions between drug and electrolytes were devised to control the release of highly water soluble drugs from oral hydrophilic monolithic systems. Electrolytes such as aluminum hydroxide and sodium carbonate were used at different concentrations in various formulations, while drug and polymer concentrations were maintained constantly at 1:2 ratios in all the formulations. These electrolytes were used to monitor matrix swelling and gel properties. Electrolytes at higher concentrations exhibited greater inhibition in drug release from the matrix and low concentrations were accounted for controlled release of the drug. The results indicated that the drug released at a controlled rate were due to differential swelling rate and matrix stiffening, and provides a uniform gel layer. These findings indicated that the swelling and gel formation in the presence of ionizable species within the hydrophilic matrices provide an attractive alternative for controlled drug delivery from a simple monolithic system. Accelerated stability studies were carried out as per ICH guidelines for some selected formulations, which indicated that these formulations were stable at accelerated storage conditions.
Sustainable Urban Habitats and Urban Water Supply: Accounting for Unaccounted for Water in Bangalore City, India  [PDF]
Krishna Raj
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2013.14017
Abstract: The demand for urban water supply service is increasing rapidly as globalisation accelerates economic development and brings improvements in living standards in India with the interactive effects of demographic growth and influx of migrants into cities due to push and pull factors. Provision of reliable and safe water supply to urban habitat is an essential input for overall economic and social advancement. However, urban local bodies mandated to perform this task in India have been experiencing constant budgetary bottlenecks in mobilizing resources to meet the water consumption targets of the present as well as future population. Urban water supply sector in India and particularly the study area Bangalore is facing a number of challenges and constraints in meeting one of the important components of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), i.e., to ensure supply of adequate potable water to half the number of people who are currently living without access to sustainable, safe drinking water sources by 2015. These problems and constraints include increasing scarcity of water, low pricing, high subsidy, poor cost recovery, high transmission and distribution (T & D) losses, due to poor maintenance, rising unaccounted-for (UFW) and non-revenue water outgo (NRW). Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB) is experiencing poor cost recovery and has been unable to generate enough revenue to meet the investment requirements of the growing water needs of the city. BWSSB is also facing serious performance gaps such as reliability, financial sustainability, environmental sustainability and affordability due to deterioration of infrastructure.
Is Cognition an Attribute of the Self or It Rather Belongs to the Body? Some Dialectical Considerations on Udbhatabhatta’s Position against Nyāya and Vaisesika  [PDF]
Krishna Del Toso
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2011.12009
Abstract: In this article an attempt is made to detect what could have been the dialectical reasons that impelled the Cār-vāka thinker Udbhatabhatta to revise and reformulate the classical materialistic concept of cognition. If indeed according to ancient Cārvākas cognition is an attribute entirely dependent on the physical body, for Udbhatabhatta cognition is an independent principle that, of course, needs the presence of a human body to manifest itself and for this very reason it is said to be a peculiarity of the body. Therefore, Udbhatabhatta seems to de-scribe the cognizing faculty according to a double ontology: it is both a principle and a characteristic, both inde-pendent and dependent. Two philosophical contexts—Vaisesika and Nyāya schools—are here taken into account as possible anti-Cārvāka fault-finding points of view that spured Udbhatabhatta to reconsider the Cārvāka per-spective. Although we do not have so much textual material on this particular aspect of the ancient and medieval philosophical debate in India, it nonetheless can be supposed that Udbhatabhatta’s reformulation of the concept of cognition was a tentative response to the Vaisesika idea that cognition is not an attribute of the body, rather of the mind (which is here supposed to be eternal), and to the Naiyāyika perspective according to which cognition would be an attribute of an everlasting self. In the case of the Nyāya school, fortunately we have at our disposal the criticism put forward by Vātsyāyana against the materialistic conception of cognition during this time. By examining some Vātsyāyana’s objections, it will emerge that Udbhatabhatta’s idea of cognition really seems to have the aspect of a consistent answer to them, from a renewed materialistic point of view.
Reconstructive surgical management of cryptomenorrhoea because of complete vaginal agenesis  [PDF]
Krishna Dahiya, Ranjita Bains
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2011.14048
Abstract: Background: The Vagina is a composite structure formed partly from the mullerian duct and partly from urogential sinus. Most of the patients with mullerian agenesis have small rudimentary uterus without any endometrial cavity, 7% - 8% may have functioning uterus. Case: A 15 years old girl admitted with primary amenorrhea, cyclical abdominal pain, hematometra and complete vaginal agenesis. Surgical correction is the mainstay of treatment in patients with functioning uterus and absent vagina. Vaginoplasty was done to reconstruct a neovagina using amnion graft and establish uterovaginal continuity. In this case we have used only perineal approach to dissect the neovagina and identify the cervix with formation of a patent drainage tract and adequate vaginal length of 9 cm. Conclusion: In rare cases of obstructed functioning uterus by complete vaginal agenesis, vaginoplasty effectively restores anatomy and function by an overall minimal operative morbidity. Human amnion provides excellent results in neovaginal reconstruction.
Cycloaddition Reactions of Azatrienes with Sulfene  [PDF]
Parvesh Singh, Krishna Bisetty
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2012.22019
Abstract: Unprecedented cycloaddition reactions of azatrienes (1) with sulfene leading to the synthesis of functionalized thiazinedioxide derivatives (5) are described. The reactions were found be highly regioselective resulting in the formation of only [4 + 2] cycloadducts.
Green Accounting: Cost Measures  [PDF]
Krishna Moorthy, Peter Yacob
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2013.21002
Abstract: In the past, environmental issues were often ignored by both, large companies and small medium enterprises. However, accounting for the environment or the acronym “Green accounting” is receiving increased attention in the recent times. Many companies, particularly small medium enterprises (SMEs) are now interested in being “green”, as many investors place a high value on environmental responsibility. Many environmental costs can be significantly reduced or eliminated as a result of business decisions, ranging from operational and housekeeping changes, to investment in greener process technology to redesign processes or products. Industry and the green movement are tilting towards consensus on the pivotal concept of sustainable development. Better natural resource and green accounts would provide valuable insights into the interaction between the environment and the economy. However, implementing green accounting in organization such as SMEs in Malaysia, results in resistance or ignored due to some reasons such as lack of awareness, lack of ethical education, etc. This paper highlights the issues surrounding the firms green accounting in financial reporting. The key goal of this paper is to outline a set of green accounting measures that are to be addressed in environmental management accounting system of a firm.
Behavior of Ultrasonic Attenuation in MnO  [PDF]
Krishna Murti Raju
Open Journal of Acoustics (OJA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/oja.2013.33A009
Abstract: Temperature dependence of ultrasonic attenuation and allied parameters are investigated for manganese oxide in the temperature range 300-500 K. These calculations are made for longitudinal and shear waves along the <100>, <110> and <111> crystallographic directions of propagation. If the values of second order elastic constants and density at a particular temperature are known for any substance, one may obtain ultrasonic velocities for longitudinal and shear waves which give an important information about its internal structure, inherent and anharmonic properties. The non-linearity coupling parameters and thermal relaxation time have also obtained for this crystal. In the present investigation, it has been found that phonon-phonon interaction is the dominant cause for ultrasonic attenuation. This study will be useful in characterisation of the material and it will give a clear picture of the behaviour of ultrasonic attenuation in MnO.
Cardiac Sarcolemmal Defects in Acute Myocarditis Due to Scorpion Envenoming Syndrome  [PDF]
K. Radha Krishna Murthy
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.49054
Abstract:

Death due to scorpion envenoming syndrome is a common event in tropical and subtropical countries. Severe scorpion envenoming causes autonomic storm, massive release of catecholamines, counter-regulatory hormones, suppressed insulin/hyperinsulinemia, acute myocarditis, hyperglycemia, increased free fatty Acid levels, acute pancreatitis, disseminated intra-vascular coagulation, acute pulmonary oedema and death. Severe scorpion envenoming causes cardiac sarcolemmal defects displayed by alterations in Na+ - K+ ATPase, Mg++ ATPase and Ca2+ ATPase activities, inhibition of erythrocyte Na+ - K+ ATPase activities, hyperkalemia and may result in death. Based on our animal experiments in which insulin administration reversed the metabolic and ECG changes induced by scorpion envenoming and treating the poisonous scorpion sting victims with insulin, we consider that insulin has a primary metabolic role in preventing and reversing acute myocarditis, the cardiovascular, haemodynamic, and neurological manifestations and pulmonary oedema induced by scorpion envenoming. Administration of insulin-glucose infusion to scorpion sting victims appears to be the physiological basis for the control of the metabolic response when that has become a determinant to survival. Continuous infusion of regular crystalline insulin should be given at the rate of 0.3 U/g glucose and glucose at the rate of 0.1 g/kg body weight/hour, for 48 - 72 hours, with supplementation of potassium as needed and maintenance of fluid, electrolytes and acid-base balance. The observation of cardiac sarcolemmal defects and physiological basis of various patho-physiological mechanisms involved in the genesis of scorpion envenoming syndrome and its reversal (in the experimental animals and scorpion sting victims) by administration of insulin are reviewed.

Hypertension, Autonomic Storm, Increased Counter Regulatory Hormones and Suppressed Insulin in Acute Myocarditis in Scorpion Envenoming Syndrome  [PDF]
Kari Radha Krishna Murthy
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2014.44027
Abstract: Death due to scorpion envenoming syndrome is a common event in many of the tropical and non-tropical counties. Initial transient hypertension is commonly observed in scorpion sting victims. Scorpion envenoming causes autonomic storm resulting in initial transient hypertension followed by hypotension, cold clammy skin, hypothermia, cardiovascular disturbances, acute myocarditis, sarcolemmal defects, pulmonary oedema, acute pancreatitis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and many other clinical manifestations. All these manifestations could be due to sudden increase in catecholamines, angiotensin II, glucagon, Cortisol and either due to suppressed insulin secretion or insulin resistance and death. The sudden increase of metabolic A in counter-regulatory hormones along with either suppressed insulin secretion/or insulin resistance results in glycogenolysis in liver, cardiac and skeletal muscles causing hyperglycemia and a sudden increase in free fatty acid levels. Free Fatty Acids increase the susceptibility of the ventricles to the disorganized electrical behavior, inhibit cardiac sarcolemmal Na+-K+ ATPase activity, increase the tendency to intravascular thrombus, increase myocardial oxygen consumption, interfere with tropomyosin-troponin activation of Actin-Myosin coupling, show detergent effects on cell membranes and they could alter the stabilization of lysosomal membranes and probably become toxic to the myocardium. Based on our animal experiments in which insulin administration reversed the metabolic and ECG changes induced by scorpion envenoming and treating the poisonous scorpion sting victims with insulin, we consider that insulin has a primary metabolic role in preventing, counter-acting and reversing all the deleterious effects of FFA by inhibiting the catecholamine induced by lipolysis, and increasing intra-cellular K+, facilitating glucose transport to the myocardium and glucose metabolism through different pathways. Administration of insulin-glucose infusion to scorpion sting victims appears to be the physiological basis for the control of the metabolic response when that has become a determinant to survival. Treatment using continuous infusion of regular crystalline insulin should be given at the rate of 0.3 U/g glucose and glucose at the rate of 0.1 g/kg body weight/hour, for 48 - 72 hours, with supplementation of potassium as needed and maintenance of fluid, electrolytes and acid-base balance.
Synthetic Workload Generation for Cloud Computing Applications  [PDF]
Arshdeep Bahga, Vijay Krishna Madisetti
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.47046
Abstract: We present techniques for characterization, modeling and generation of workloads for cloud computing applications. Methods for capturing the workloads of cloud computing applications in two different models - benchmark application and workload models are described. We give the design and implementation of a synthetic workload generator that accepts the benchmark and workload model specifications generated by the characterization and modeling of workloads of cloud computing applications. We propose the Georgia Tech Cloud Workload Specification Language (GT-CWSL) that provides a structured way for specification of application workloads. The GT-CWSL combines the specifications of benchmark and workload models to create workload specifications that are used by a synthetic workload generator to generate synthetic workloads for performance evaluation of cloud computing applications.
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