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Comparison Of Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block With Supraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block In Upper Limb Surgeries. (A Study Of 100 Patients)
Sheetal Shah,kamla Mehta,Kirti Patel,Khyati Patel
NHL Journal of Medical Sciences , 2013,
Abstract: Comparative prospective study of two routes of Brachial plexus block – infraclavicular coracoid approach with conventional supraclavicular approach was carried out in 100 patients of ASA RISK I to III, undergoing elective or emergency surgeries on upper limb, at the level of elbow and below elbow. Patients were divided into 2 equal groups, Group I (Infraclavicular) and Group S (Supraclavicular), which were compared for block performance time, onset, quality and duration of block. The applied anatomy, methodology, complications and limitations have been emphasized. The study concludes that infraclavicular brachial plexus block with coracoid approach is a useful block without complications if practiced with precautions.
Negligible Colon Cancer Risk from Food-Borne Acrylamide Exposure in Male F344 Rats and Nude (nu/nu) Mice-Bearing Human Colon Tumor Xenografts
Jayadev Raju, Jennifer Roberts, Chandni Sondagar, Kamla Kapal, Syed A. Aziz, Don Caldwell, Rekha Mehta
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073916
Abstract: Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet) reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control) or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM) or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu) mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control) or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a “complete carcinogen”, but acts as a “co-carcinogen” by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters.
Adapting coral culture to climate change: the Mauritian experience
Kamla Ruby Moothien Pillay
Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science , 2011,
Abstract: The reefs of Mauritius have been subjected to various impacts including climate-induced bleaching. Since coral bleaching has become a recurrent event, we have developed a pilot project to culture corals in a Land-Based Nursery (LBN) based on the hypothesis that corals would grow well ex situ and at the same time they will be protected from the deleterious impacts of warm water anomalies, cyclones and pollution. The LBN consisted of three culture tanks, supplied with seawater from the lagoon. An Ocean-Based Nursery (OBN) was set up to serve as control to the experiment. Various fast growing as well as bleaching resistant coral species were cultured. Most species grew well in the nurseries with some variations observed between treatments. For example, it was noted that although the growth of Acropora formosa was significantly faster at the OBN (p<0.05), yet it adapted well to the LBN. On the other hand, Acropora austera grew significantly faster at the LBN (p<0.05). Pocillopora damicornis and A. selago grew successfully at both the OBN and the LBN. Overall, the results from the pilot study indicated that ex situ coral culture was possible for various species and these could be used for conservation initiatives as well as for maintaining a sustainable marine aquarium trade.
Validation: An Essentiality In The Pharmacy
Tarun Virmani,Kamla Pathak
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: The development of a drug product is a lengthy process involving drug discovery, laboratory testing, animal studies, clinical trials and regulatory registration.To further enhance the effectiveness and safety of the drug product after approval, many regulatory agencies such as the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also require that the drug product be tested for its identity, strength, quality, purity and stability before it can be released for use. For this reason, pharmaceutical validation and process controls are important in spite of the problems that may be encountered1. Process controls include raw materials inspection, in-process controls and targets for final product. The purpose is to monitor the on-line and off-line performance of the manufacturing process and then validate it. Even after the manufacturing process is validated, current good manufacturing practice also requires that a well written procedure for process controls is established to monitor its performance2. This paper provides an overview of pharmaceutical validation and process controls in drug development. The validation concept can be applied to new drugs, new dosage forms and generic drug development.
Probiotics : regulatory prospectives
Reshu Gupta,Kamla Pathak
Pharmaceutical Reviews , 2007,
Abstract: There is evidence that the oral consumption of microorganisms produces a protective effect on the gut flora. Probiotics are defined as the viable microorganisms that exhibit a beneficial effect on the health of the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance.A significant number of studies suggest that probiotics might have beneficial effects on several microbial disorders of the gut, but it is very difficult and essential to define the safety and clinical efficacy of such products. For this difficulty The Joint FAO/ WHO Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food generated guidelines and recommend criteria and methodology for the evaluation of probiotics, and to identify and define what data needs to be available to accurately substantiate health claims. The problems associated with probiotic products were also reduced by providing standards by ISAPP (June 22, 2005). There are a number of commercial products available in market and due to the contents of the dosage form being lyophilized, a method of analysis was required which would evaluate the release characteristics of the dosage form in both simulated gastric and intestinal environment and allow for the enumeration of viable and non-viable bacteria released. This is done by use of USP type II dissolution apparatus and treated the samples with 4’, 6-diamidino-2-phenyl indole (DAPI) fluorochrome stain and evaluated using UV-microscopy. The goal of present review is to address the regulatory aspects of probiotic formulations
Use of solubility parameter to design dry suspension of cefaclor as a dual pack system
Kuksal Kiran,Pathak Kamla
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: One of the important methods to improve the solubility of a less water-soluble drug is by the use of co solvents. The solubility enhancement produced by two binary blends with a common co solvent (water-propylene glycol and propylene glycol-ethyl acetate) was studied against the solubility parameter of solvent blends (δ1 ) to evaluate the solubility parameter of drug (δ2 ). The binary blend water:propylene glycol (20:80) gave maximum solubility with an experimental δ2 value of 16.52 (Cal/cm 3 ) 0.5 that was comparable to the theoretical value of 16.52 (Cal/cm 3 ) 0.5 determined by molar volume method and 16.35 (Cal/cm 3 ) 0.5 when determined by method proposed by Lin and Nash. The solvent blend water:propylene glycol (20:80) in which the drug exhibited maximum solubility was used as the reconstituting medium for formulation of dry suspension of cefaclor. The percentage cumulative drug release of cefaclor from the formulation F7 was compared to the marketed formulation by calculating the f 1 (dissimilarity factor) and f 2 (similarity factor) factors. A higher f 1 value and f 2 value below 50 indicates difference between the two dissolution profiles.
In situ formed phase transited drug delivery system of ketoprofen for achieving osmotic, controlled and level a in vitro in vivo correlation
Philip A,Pathak Kamla
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: A dry process induced phase transited, non disintegrating, controlled release, in situ formed asymmetric membrane capsular system for poorly water soluble drug, ketoprofen, was developed and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo for osmotic and controlled release of the drug. In situ formed asymmetric membrane capsules were prepared using fabricated glass capsule holders via dry, phase inversion process. Effect of varying osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium on drug release was studied. Membrane characterization by scanning electron microscopy showed an outer dense region with less pores and an inner porous region for the prepared asymmetric membrane. In vitro release studies and statistical test for all the prepared and marketed formulation were done at P > 0.05. The drug release was found to be independent of the pH, but dependent on the osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed a level A correlation (R 2> 0.99) with 39.24 % relative bioavailability compared to immediate release tablet of ketoprofen. Excellent correlation achieved suggested that the in vivo performance of the phase transited in situ formed AMCs could be accurately predicted from their in vitro release profiles and could a means for controlled delivery of drugs with varying solubility.
Recent Advances in Delivery Systems and Therapeutics of Cinnarizine: A Poorly Water Soluble Drug with Absorption Window in Stomach
Smita Raghuvanshi,Kamla Pathak
Journal of Drug Delivery , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/479246
Abstract: Low solubility causing low dissolution in gastrointestinal tract is the major problem for drugs meant for systemic action after oral administration, like cinnarizine. Pharmaceutical products of cinnarizine are commercialized globally as immediate release preparations presenting low absorption with low and erratic bioavailability. Approaches to enhance bioavailability are widely cited in the literature. An attempt has been made to review the bioavailability complications and clinical therapeutics of poorly water soluble drug: cinnarizine. The interest of writing this paper is to summarize the pharmacokinetic limitations of drug with special focus on strategies to improvise bioavailability along with effectiveness of novel dosage forms to circumvent the obstacle. The paper provides insight to the approaches to overcome low and erratic bioavailability of cinnarizine by cyclodextrin complexes and novel dosage forms: self-nanoemulsifying systems and buoyant microparticulates. Nanoformulations need to systematically explored in future, for their new clinical role in prophylaxis of migraine attacks in children. Clinical reports have affirmed the role of cinnarizine in migraine prophylaxis. Research needs to be dedicated to develop dosage forms for efficacious bioavailability and drug directly to brain. 1. Introduction Low aqueous solubility of drug has always presented major obstacle towards the development of drug delivery systems which often compromises patient compliance. Oral route is thought to be common and easy for drug administration. On oral administration of drug in its dosage form, it is expected to dissolve and release the drug into the gastrointestinal fluid before the absorption [1]. Poor solubility may limit the dissolution of drug in gastrointestinal tract resulting to low bioavailability that can pharmacologically affect the therapeutic efficacy of drug [2]. The drugs belonging to BCS class II and IV particularly fall in this category and have been extensively researched molecular optimization and development of novel efficacious dosage forms. Cinnarizine, (E)-1-(diphenylmethyl)-4-(3-phenylprop-2-enyl) piperazine (Figure 1), molecular formula: C26H28N2 and molecular weight: 368.51?g/mol, is white or almost white powder. Originally obtained from woodreed roots (Cinna), cinnarizine was first synthesized by Janssen Pharmaceutica in 1955 and marketed in 1958 under the brand name Stugeron. It is a weak base with poor aqueous solubility. According to a paper the solubility of cinnarizine is highly pH dependent, that is, 0.29?mg/mL at pH 2,
Does heterosexual transmission drive the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Sub-Saharan Africa (or elsewhere)?
Marc Artzrouni,Vivient Kamla
Statistics , 2007,
Abstract: A two-sex Basic Reproduction Number (BRN) is used to investigate the conditions under which the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) may spread through heterosexual contacts in Sub-Saharan Africa. (The BRN is the expected number of new infections generated by one infected individual; the disease spreads if the BRN is larger than 1). A simple analytical expression for the BRN is derived on the basis of recent data on survival rates, transmission probabilities, and levels of sexual activity. Baseline results show that in the population at large (characterized by equal numbers of men and women) the BRN is larger than 1 if every year each person has 82 sexual contacts with different partners. the BRN is also larger than 1 for commercial sex workers (CSWs) and their clients (two populations of different sizes) if each CSW has about 256 clients per year and each client visits one CSW every two weeks. A sensitivity analysis explores the effect on the BRN of a doubling (or a halving) of the transmission probabilities. Implications and extensions are discussed.
Modeling the Dynamics of Malaria Transmission with Bed Net Protection Perspective  [PDF]
Jean Claude Kamgang, Vivient Corneille Kamla, Stéphane Yanick Tchoumi
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/am.2014.519298
Abstract: We propose and analyze an epidemiological model to evaluate the effectiveness of bed nets as a prophylactic measure in malaria-endemic areas. The main purpose in this work is the modeling of the aggressiveness of anopheles mosquitoes relative to the way humans use to protect themselves against bites of mosquitoes. This model is a system of several differential equations: the number of equations depends on the particular assumptions of the model. We compute the basic reproduction number\"\", and show that if\"\", the disease free equilibrium (DFE) is globally asymptotically stable on the non-negative orthant. If\"\", the system admits a unique endemic equilibrium (EE) that is globally and asymptotically stable. Numerical simulations are presented corresponding to scenarios typical of malaria-endemic areas, based on data collected in the literature. Finally, we discuss the relative effectiveness of different kinds of bed nets.
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