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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2466 matches for " irrigation "
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A Study on Planned and Applied Irrigation Modules in Irrigation Networks: A Case Study at Büyük Menderes Basin, Turkey  [PDF]
Cengiz Ko?
Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering (CWEEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cweee.2016.54011
Abstract: In this study, irrigation modules calculated in planning and actualized operational stage of the irrigation networks are examined. Irrigation module used irrigation networks is a constant discharge parameter, meeting the needs of irrigation water requirement smonthly of crops in one hectare of irrigation area and it is a constant discharge flowing continuously for a month. Extent of the overlapping between the irrigation planning module and the operation module actualized during the operational stage of the irrigation network depends on changes in the cropping patterns, differences in the effects of field irrigation methods used by farmers on the capacity of the constructed system, the increases or decreases in the water demands depending on the irrigation period, as well as the extent of sustainability according to the selected operation method. A2 irrigation area of Aydin plain irrigation network, locating in the Büyük Menderes basin, Turkey is selected as study area, with an area of 2500 ha. Irrigation planning module calculated for this network is q = 1.16 l/s/ha and it has been designed as per the supply demand operation method. For the study; actualized irrigation module in the operation stage has been compared with the planning irrigation module by using Excel software and taking parameters such as actual crop pattern and percentage distributions, actualized irrigated areas, irrigation networks and water distribution, water intake of irrigation networks which have been calculated without operation losses, as well as with 5%, 10%, and 15% operation losses. The July operation module calculated for the examined irrigation network generally conforms to the planning module, as it has received the values close to or below the value of irrigation planning modules.
Effects of Water Distribution Uniformity on Waxy Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield: Preliminary Results  [PDF]
Lucia Bortolini, Marco Martello
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.611098

To face climatic changes, the increase of frequency and severity of droughts, and economic development pressures, Water Management Institutions point at the necessity of water conserving. A sustainable demand-led approach is the most viable option, focusing on achieving more efficient irrigation practices instead of less sustainable expansion of supply. The aim of this work is to investigate on some aspects of the rational water management for the irrigation of corn in order to evaluate the actual possibility of introduction of drip irrigation systems on the Venetian Plain. Trials were carried out on a farm located in Isola della Scala (Verona, Italy) in an area of about 13 ha (12 ha with a drip irrigation system and 1 ha with a solid-set sprinkler system); the effects of the performance of the two systems on waxy corn yield were considered. In particular, water distribution uniformity, water use efficiency, and yield performance of irrigation systems were evaluated. DUlq and CU coefficients for distribution uniformity and IWUe and WUEb indexes for water use efficiency were calculated. To visualize and better analyze the distribution uniformity, the crop yield and the efficiency parameters, ArcGIS 10 (ESRI?) with IDW interpolation were used to create maps. First results show a good water uniformity distribution in the drip irrigation system but only with a careful and proper design of the entire system. As regards the water use efficiency, drip irrigation values are lower than those of sprinkler irrigation (-46% for IWUe and -25% for WUEb), probably due to different irrigation management and water volumes used: in fact, drip irrigation was scheduled every three days, while only supplemental operations were done for sprinkler irrigation. No statistical correlation was found between application rate and yield for both

Sustained Deficit Irrigation and Mulching on Growth of Sourani Olive Trees in Kuwait  [PDF]
A. Al-Shatti, Habibah S. Al-Menaie
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33B009

Olea europaea, a native plant of the Mediterranean region, is of great interest to agronomists worldwide, owing to its health beneficial properties and tolerance to harsh environmental conditions, along with its economic importance. The productivity and production efficiency of olive is linearly related to both the level of transpiration and the amount of water supplied. Under conditions of limited supply of good quality water for irrigation in Kuwait, deficit irrigation applied at selected phenological stages can maximize economic gains and minimize environmental damage. Moreover, mulching contributes to a significant reduction in water requirements via reducing soil water losses and increasing soil water retention. In this study, the effects of different irrigation levels, a restitution of 50%, 75% or 100% of the estimated evapotranspiration rate (ETc), and the application of mulching on plant growth under the Kuwait environmental conditions were determined to evaluate the possibilities of reducing the amounts of water supplied with irrigation. Various parameters determining the vegetative growth of the trees such as average height, stem girth and number of branches were recorded at three months intervals. Both the irrigation level and mulching were shown to possess a significant impact on growth of Sourani olive cultivar under the Kuwait environmental conditions. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference in the height of the trees under all the three irrigation treatments with mulch and trees under 100% ETc devoid of mulch. In contrast, a significant difference was exhibited by trees under 100% ETc with mulch and 50% ETc without mulch. Within each irrigation treatment, trees with mulch presented higher values for plant height, stem girth and number of shoots. Thus deficit irrigation of 50% ETc along with organic mulch was shown to enhance vegetative growth close to its maximum potential by conserving the scarce water resources.

Evaluación del manejo del riego de la papa en la Empresa de Cultivos Varios "Valle del Yabú", Santa Clara, Cuba
Pacheco Seguí,Juan; Pérez Corra,Andrés;
Revista Ciencias T??cnicas Agropecuarias , 2010,
Abstract: the objective of this paper was the evaluation of the irrigation technology and the irrigation regime applied to the crop of potato in the field 14 of agricultural cooperative #2 belonging to the enterprise "valle del yabu" during the period 2008-2009. the irrigation technology was an electric central pivot model western, which worked with good uniformity. the applied water depths were in general very small and with very short irrigation intervals those regime caused an excess of turns of the central pivot in the field, with problems of blockages and wash of chemical products. the soil moisture was measured by means of soil samples, tensiometers were also installed. the depth of 273 mm of water applied in the whole cycle was enough for the crop, but deficiently distributed. starting from the water balance, the irrigation depths were recommended by phenological phases and also the irrigation intervals. the yield of tubers was of 30.37 t/ha with favorable economic indicators for the ubpc #2.
Satellite Derived Geospatial Irrigation Performance Indicators for Benchmarking Studies of Irrigation Systems  [PDF]
A. V. Suresh Babu, M. Shanker, V. Venkateshwar Rao
Advances in Remote Sensing (ARS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ars.2012.11001
Abstract: Development of irrigation infrastructure and its efficient management is the primary concern for sustainable food production. The assessment of irrigation infrastructure creation, its utilization, diagnostic evaluation of the various performance indices (monitoring) are important to measure the efficiency. Benchmarking of Irrigation Systems (BIS) is for the diagnostic analysis of irrigation performance indicators comprising of Irrigation Infrastructure System (IIS), Agricultural System (AS), Water Delivery Dynamics (WDD). Since, the performance of an irrigation command varies with space and time, utilization of spatial information technologies viz. Remote Sensing (RS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning Systems (GPS) useful to provide spatial information on several indices in the process of benchmarking (BM). Information requirements for BIS at different stages, utilization of spatial information technologies to derive irrigation performance indicators was discussed with suitable examples and demonstrated in this study. The studies carried out indicates that the geospatial approach for BIS enabled the improvements in data collection methods, diagnostic analysis, spatio-temporal visualisation of BM indicators at disaggregated canal level which would be useful for decision support during the corrective management measures. The conjunctive use of multi-date (medium resolution) satellite data, high spatial resolution data, field data on water deliveries was found to be an alternative to the conventional non-spatial approaches for BIS and thereby better water resources planning and management.
Analysis of cotton water productivity in Fergana Valley of Central Asia  [PDF]
J. Mohan Reddy, Shukhrat Muhammedjanov, Kahramon Jumaboev, Davron Eshmuratov
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/as.2012.36100
Abstract: Cotton water productivity was studied in Fergana Valley of Central Asia during the years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. Data was collected from 18 demonstration fields (13 in Uzbekistan, 5 in Tajikistan). The demonstration field farmers implemented several improved agronomic and irrigation water management practices. The average values of crop yield, estimated crop consumptive use (ETa) and total water applied (TWA) for the demonstration sites were, respectively, 3700 kg/ha, 6360 m3/ha, and 8120 m3/ha. The range of values for TWA and ETa were, respectively, 5000 m3/ha to 12,000 m3/ha and 4500 m3/ha to 8000 m3/ha. A quadratic relationship was found between TWA and ETa. The average yield of the adjacent fields was 3300 kg/ha, whereas the average yield of cotton in Fergana Valley as a whole was 2900 kg/ha, indicating 28% and 14% increase in crop yield, respectively, from, demonstration fields and adjacent fields. There was no significant difference in crop yields between the wet years (2009 and 2010) and the dry year (2011), which is explained by the quadratic relationship between TWA and ETa. The water productivity values ranged from 0.35 kg/m3 to 0.89 kg/m3, indicating a significant potential for improving water productivity through agronomic and irrigation management interventions. The ratio of average ETa divided by average TWA gave an average application efficiency of 78% (some fields under-irrigated and some fields over-irrigated), the remaining 22% of water applied leaving the field. Since more than 60% of the water used for irrigation in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan is pumped from, even if all this 22% of water returns to the stream, substantial energy savings would accrue from improving the average application efficiency at field level. The range of values for TWA indicates the inequity in water distribution/accessibility. Addressing this inequity would also increase water productivity at field and project level.
An Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Selected Soil Parameters at Mutema Irrigation Scheme, Zimbabwe  [PDF]
Abel Chemura, Dumisani Kutywayo, Tapiwanashe M. Chagwesha, Pardon Chidoko
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.62018

Soil salinity and sodicity are major factors limiting agricultural productivity in irrigation schemes located in semi-arid areas. A study was conducted to assess the quality of irrigation water used in Mutema Irrigation Scheme located in south-east Zimbabwe to understand how irrigation water quality is related to the chemical quality of soils in the scheme. Irrigation water samples were collected from groundwater and surface sources in 2012 and their hydrochemistry determined while soil samples were collected from irrigated and non-irrigated parts of the scheme in 2006 and 2012 and analysed for selected chemical properties. The results indicated that the groundwater had high concentrations of Na+ (4.35 mg/l), Mg2+ (4.75 mg/l), Cl- (3.6 mg/l) and Electrical Conductivity (EC) (1729 Msm/cm) compared to the surface irrigation water source which had 0.72 mg/l Na+, 2.25 mg/l Mg2+, 0.78 mg/l Cl- and 594 Msm/cm EC. The soils in the scheme had higher levels of pH, Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP) and EC which in some blocks exceeded the threshold requirements for cropping. It was found

Mutated Barley: A Climate Change Adaptation Strategy for Food Security and Biodiversity Management  [PDF]
Habibah S. Al-Menaie, Ouhoud Al-Ragam
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33B010

Increased agricultural production under the harsh environmental conditions with limited water resources and scarce natural resources is a major challenge in arid regions like Kuwait. The implementation of sustainable agricultural practices holds paramount importance in delivering better agricultural environment for increased production. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one among the most dependable cereal crops under saline and drought conditions. Mutant barley genotypes that have evolved under stress conditions using the improved genetic resources have the desired morphological, physiological and agronomic traits. As Kuwait lack local barley genotypes, it is important to find suitable barley genotypes adaptable to drought and salinity, with high crop water productivity. In this study, several mutant barley varieties were screened for better performance under drought and salinity, with high feed quality. The growth performance and the nutritive value of twelve different barley cultivars were evaluated under both fresh and brackish water irrigation in Kuwait. The seeds of the superior lines were multiplied for fodder production trials and their nutritive value was evaluated in animal production systems. It was found that two parental lines Gustoe and California Marriot and two mutant barley genotypes ari-e.228 and Golden Promise produced high grain yield of 3 - 4 ton/ha. The mutant genotype Golden Promise was the most tolerant, while ari-e.156 was the most susceptible genotype to saline stress. Both proximate analysis and animal feeding trial showed that the dry matter content of the air dry straws varied from 91.26% to 93.35%. The crude fat contents were within the acceptable range (1.13% to 1.93%), and high concentrations of ash and crude protein were found in straw in all genotypes. Thus, the evolution of farming systems that are economically viable, competitive, sustainable and environmental friendly improves the production efficiency, productivity and product quality of various crops.

Effect of Irrigation Method and Non-Uniformity of Irrigation on Potato Performance and Quality  [PDF]
Kamal H. Amer, Abdellateif A. Samak, Jerry L. Hatfield
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2016.83024
Abstract: Potato growth, yield, and quality under improved irrigation methods and non-uniformity of their irrigation applications are important to enhance water management in arid regions. A field experiment was conducted in 2014 spring and fall growing seasons using potato (Solanum tuberosum) grown in northern Egypt at Shibin El Kom, Menofia, Egypt to evaluate potato response to furrow or trickle irrigation. A Randomized Split-Plot Design with irrigation method randomly distributed and non-uniformity of irrigation applications evaluated along either irrigation furrow or trickle lateral as dependent variables measured at the 3rd, 13th, 23rd, 33rd, 43rd and 53rd m along the 55 m irrigation line. Traditional (TF) and partial (PF) furrows as well as trickle point (TP) and line (TL) sources were used as irrigation methods. Each treatment was repeated three times. For a 33rd m treatment, seasonal optimum water use by potato was 328, 234, 269 and 292 mm over 118 days in spring and 200, 164, 178 and 186 mm over 122 days in fall under TF, PF, TP and TL irrigation methods, respectively. Potato tuber yield and quality were significantly affected by growing season (S), irrigation method (I) and non-uniformity of irrigation application (U). Tuber yield, total soluble solid (TSS) and leaf area index (LAI) were significantly affected by I and U, and their interaction I * U; harvest index (HI) was not affected by I but U. Except for TSS by S * I and HI by U * I and S * I, results showed no significant differences. Moreover, tuber weight, number and marketable yield were significantly affected by S, I, U and I * U interaction, except medium tuber size and culls by S. A given 33rd treatment under partial furrow and trickle irrigation, relative to that of traditional furrow, enhanced tuber yield and improved quality in both growing seasons. In non-un- iform irrigation application over two growing seasons, potato crop response was developed under varied irrigation methods. Tuber yields were significantly affected in a linear relationship (r2 ≥ 0.75) by either water deficit or excessive water under irrigation methods.
Yield, Water Use Efficiency and Physiological Characteristic of “Tommy Atkins” Mango under Partial Rootzone Drying Irrigation System  [PDF]
Marcelo Rocha dos Santos, Breno Rosa Neves, Bismarc Lopes da Silva, Sérgio Luiz Rodrigues Donato
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.713084
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate the yield, water use efficiency and physiologic characteristics of “Tommy Atkins” mango under partial rootzone drying. The experiment was carried out in an orchard of mango in the irrigated perimeter of Ceraíma, BA. Five treatments and six repetitions were used with one tree per experimental plot: 01—Full Irrigation, 100% of ETc, 02—100% of ETc with frequency of alternance (FA) of 15 days, 03—80% ETc with FA of 15 days, 04—60% of ETc with FA of 15 days, 05—40% ETc with FA of 15 days. The treatments were conductedfrom the beginning of flowering to the harvest of mango in an orchard irrigated by drip. There was no significant reduction in productivity of “Tommy Atkins” mango under PRD up to 40% of ETc and PRD with 40% ETc resulted in greater water use efficiency. There was no significant difference among the averages of photosynthetically active radiation, Qleaf; leaf temperature, Tl; internal CO2 concentration, Ci; transpiration, E; stomatal conductance, gs; photosynthesis, A; carboxylation efficiency, A/Ci; quantum efficiency of photosynthesis, A/Qleaf and instantaneous water use efficiency, A/E between full irrigation and PRD with different water depth. The increase in leaf temperature causes reduction in A/Qleaf and A/E, however, it increases the transpiration. Increased gs results in higher rates of E, A and A/Ci. The use of the PRD with 40% of ETc causes no interference in gas exchange, maintains the yield and increases water use efficiency in “Tommy Atkins” mango tree.
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