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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1053 matches for " ionic rations "
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Content of macroelements and their ionic ratios in oat grain depending on the sulphur form and dose
Bozena BARCZAK,Krystian NOWAK
Journal of Central European Agriculture , 2013, DOI: 10.5513/jcea01/14.1.1167
Abstract: The research was based on the 2001-03 field experiment set up on Luvisol, of a very good rye soil complex, IIIb soil valuation class. The soil was slightly acidic in reaction, average richness in available forms of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium as well as low richness in the content of sulphates (VI). The research demonstrated that the sulphur fertilisation applied showed, in general, a slight effect on the content and equivalent proportions of macroelements in oat grain. The fertilizers (ammonium sulphate (VI), potassium sulphate (VI) and Wigor S) applied, irrespective of the sulphur form and dose, in some of the research years there was shown a slight decrease as compared with the non-fertilisation treatment, the contents of phosphorus, potassium and calcium. The content of magnesium, especially sulphate sulphur (VI) in oat grain, as affected by fertilizers containing sulphur, in general, gets increased. The elementary sulphur form found in Wigor S made it possible to reach slightly higher contents of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium than its sulphate (VI) form than the one used in a form of K2SO4 and (NH4)2SO4 however, in general, these differences were not significant. Neither were there identified any differences between the effect of the 20 and 40 kg Sha-1 doses on the content of the macroelements.
Productive Response of Dairy Cows Fed with Different Levels of Totally Mixed Ration and Pasture  [PDF]
Eloy Eduardo Salado, Gustavo Bretschneider, Alejandra Cuatrin, Adriana María Descalzo, Gerardo Antonio Gagliostro
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.97058
Abstract: Forty multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation (66 ± 19 days) were assigned to one of four treatments that consisted in different ratios of total mixed rations (TMR) and pasture at 100% TMR (T0), 75:25 (T1) 50:50 (T2) and 25:75 (T3) over 9 weeks in autumn-winter. Measures of rumen parameters and digestion were performed on 4 additional Holstein cows in late lactation (287 days postpartum) fitted with permanent ruminal fistulae and producing 22.6 (±5.4) kg milk in a 4 × 4 Latin Square design. In T1 to T3 cows were taken to the grazing plot once they finished the pre-planned TMR intake and pasture was offered at 2 times the expected forage DM intake. Milk was analyzed for chemical composition, milk fatty acid (FA) profile and antioxidant compounds. The cows were individually weighed and body condition score (BCS) was determined. After the morning milking, blood samples were taken every 2 weeks and plasma was analyzed for glucose, urea, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I). Herbage mass in pre grazing strips of pasture averaged 2540 ± 343 kg DM/ha. As TMR intake increased, production variables increased linearly excepting milk fat (3.88 g/100g) and milk protein (3.43 g/100g) contents that were not affected. Milk yield (kg/cow/d) resulted maximal in T0 (34.2) and linearly decreased (p < 0.01) with pasture intake averaging 32.1 (T1), 28.4 (T2) and 26.8 (T3) as a higher energy intake and a lower energy cost associated with grazing activity. Milk fat output (kg/cow/d) resulted higher in T0 (1.35) and T1 (1.25) compared to T2 (1.10) and T3 (1.04). Milk protein yield (kg/cow/d) was also higher in T0 (1.18) and T1 (1.11) compared to T2 (0.96) and T3 (0.92). Total DM (24.09 kg/cow/d) and energy (41.95 Mcal NEL/cow/d)) intakes resulted maximal in T0 decreasing as pasture replaced TMR without effects on conversion efficiency (1.48 kg milk/kg DM). Plasma concentration of glucose, insulin and IGF-I were not affected but GH and NEFA increased as pasture replaced TMR in T3. Ruminal pH (5.91) and total or VFA proportions did not differ but NH3-N concentration resulted higher in treatments with higher proportion of pasture. Kinetic parameters of DM and NDF digestion from pasture or corn silage were not affected. Milk FA profile and milk antioxidant quality showed unfavorably changes as TMR increased by a decrease in rumenic and linolenic acids and content of antioxidant vitamins, without effect on the atherogenicity index. Results suggested a depressing effect of the pasture on total DM
Digestibilidad in situ de la materia seca de tres dietas para ovinos de engorda
Salinas-Chavira,Jaime; Gutiérrez-González,Juan Carlos; García-Castillo,Ramón; López-Trujillo,Ramiro; Duarte-Ortu?o,Arturo;
Agronomía Mesoamericana , 2011,
Abstract: in situ dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs. the objective of this work was the measure the in situ and ruminal degradability and dry matter digestibility of three fattening diets for lambs, used by lamb producers in the central area of tamaulipas, méxico. the nylon bag technique was used to determine in situ dry matter digestibility, using three lambs with cannulas in the rumen, distributed in a latin square design. the ruminal incubation times were 0, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h. all treatment diets (t) used ground sorghum grain (sorghum vulgare) as a base. t1 included rice (oryza sativa) polishing with 7.53% on a dry matter basis (dm) of sorghum straw as forage; t2 had 5% dm of sorghum straw as forage; and t3 had 5% dm of buffel grass (cenchrus ciliaris) hay plus 3% dm of alfalfa hay (medicago sativa). in t1, the highest (p<0.05) value of digestibility at 0 and 4 h was observed. for 24 h, the highest (p<0.50) digestible fraction was obtained with t2. at 48 h, no difference (p>0.05) was observed between treatments. the washing loss and the degradation constant were higher (p<0.05) for t1 than t2 and t3. the diet of t1, containing rice polishing, produced the highest digestible fraction at the first hours of incubation in rumen (0 and 4 h). t3 was digested in smaller proportion, although it could be the best diet for feedlots of lambs because of the lower acidosis risk.
Caracteriza??o química e perfil aminoácidico da farinha de silagem de cabe?a de camar?o
Guilherme, Ricardo de Figueiredo;Cavalheiro, José Marcelino Oliveira;Souza, Petr?nio Augusto Sim?o de;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542007000300028
Abstract: the growing development of the fishery forced the researchers they to look for the best form of use of the rations, because these, they can elevate the cost of production from 50 to 80%. in the diets for fish and shrimps, the protein of animal origin more commonly used it is together the bone flour and meat with the fish flour. due to shortage and the high price of such sources proteins and seeking the flour if silage of shrimp head as an alternative in potential, that research had as objectives the elaboration, chemical characterization and the profile of the amino acids of the flour of silage of shrimp head, seeking to assist the demands nutritionals of amino acids in the feeding of fish. the experiment was driven in the laboratory of development of fishing products - ldfp - of the department of technology and chemistry of foods, ufpb. the flour of silage of shrimp head was elaborated and accomplished the chemical analysis (centesimal composition) and dosage of calcium and match, accomplished in triplicate. the analysis of the composition of amino acids of the silage of shrimp head was accomplished in a high-performance liquid chromatography. the flour of silage of shrimp head was shown as an excellent source proteins (39,5%) and lipids (12,5%) besides having considerable amount of calcium, therefore it can serve as eventual substitute in the formularization of diets for fish.
Measurement of Lipid Supplements in Poultry Feed by Infrared Spectroscopy
Ronald A. Holser,Samantha A. Hawkins
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2011,
Abstract: Rapid measurement of a fatty acid supplement in poultry feed formulations was performed using near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with chemometric analysis. A standard feed formulation was amended with up to 10 wt% fatty acid supplement containing Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA) and scanned from 10,000 cm-1 to 4000 cm-1. Spectra were evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to detect outliers followed by Partial Least Square (PLS) regression. Models were developed with first derivative spectra. A typical dataset of 36 spectra was subdivided with 30 spectra used for model calibration and 6 spectra for the validation set. The PLS model produced a regression coefficient of 0.98314 with an RMSEC value of 0.44772. This technique provided a rapid method to analyze the amount of fatty acids in supplemented feeds.
Effects of Partial Mixed Rations on Production, Composition and Nutritional Value of Milk in Lactating Dairy Cows in Temperate Region of Argentina  [PDF]
Gerardo Antonio Gagliostro, Giovanni Alexander Quilaguy-Ayure, Liliana Elisabet Antonacci, Carlos Alberto Cangiano
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.97059
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementing an oat winter pasture with a total mixed ration (TMR) on lactation performance of dairy cows. Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three TMR: pasture ratios at 79:21 (T1), 58:42 (T2) and 33:67 (T3) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The response to the 100% TMR diet (TMR-100) was tested using an extra period of 14 days inmediately after finishing the Latin square schedule using the nine experimental cows. Total DM intake resulted higher in TMR-100 (28.2 (kg/cow·day) and decreased by 2.64 kg/cow·day in T1, 5.02 kg in T2 and 6.68 kg in T3. Yields of milk (31.2 kg/cow·day) and fat corrected milk (26.8 kg/cow·day) was similar between T1, T2 and T3. Milk yield resulted higher in TMR-100 (32.1 kg/cow·day) compared to T2 (30.7 kg/cow·day). Milk fat concentration (g/100 g) was higher in T2 (3.13) and T3 (3.20) compared to T1 (2.96) and TMR-100 (2.85) and milk fat yield did not differ. Milk protein content resulted higher in TMR-100 and T2 averaging 3.37 g/100 g compared to T1 (3.32 g/100 g). The lowest milk protein concentration was observed in T3 (3.29 g/100 g) that resulted only different to T2. Milk protein yield did not differ between T1, T2 and T3 averaging 1.03 kg/cow·day. A lower protein yield was detected in T2 (1.03) and T3 (1.00) when compared to TMR-100 (1.07). Efficiency of milk production (kg milk/kg DM intake) resulted higher in T3 (1.42) compared to T1 (1.25). Treatments that included pasture yielded a higher efficiency of milk production when compared to TMR-100 (1.13). Plasma urea concentration resulted lower in TMR-100 (33.8 mg/dl) with no significant differences for this parameter between the other treatments. Glucose plasma levels did not differ between T1, T2 and T3 but plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) gradually increased as the proportion of pasture was enhanced according to the lower energy intake. Plasma insulin levels were higher in TMR-100 and T2 whereas concentration of somatomedins (IGF-1) remained unaffected. Grouth hormone (GH) levels and the GH/insulin ratio were highly variable and not affected by treatments. Concentration of vaccenic and conjugated linoleic acids gradually increased with the inclusion of pasture in the diet. Supplementing a winter oat pasture with TMR
Utiliza??o do alho (Allium sativum L.) como promotor de crescimento de frangos de corte
Freitas, Reginaldo de;Fonseca, José Brand?o;Soares, Rita da Trindade Ribeiro Nobre;Rostagno, Horacio Santiago;Soares, Paulo Rubens;
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-35982001000300022
Abstract: three experiments were carried out to evaluate garlic in broilers diets as growth promoter. in the first experiment 480 one day old chicks, sexed, were distributed in six treatments with eight replicates (four with males and four with females), with ten birds each. the treatments were: basal diet with corn , soybean meal and dicalcium phosphaate (rb1), rb1 + 0.2% garlic; rb1 + 0.4%garlic; rb1 + 0.6%garlic, rb1 + 0.01% lincomicin and rb1 + 0.0025% zinc bacitracin. in the second experiment 240 one day old chicks were distributed in three treatments with eight replicates (four with males and four with females), and ten birds each. the treatments were: basal diet with corn, soybean meal and bone and meat meal (rb2), rb2 + 0.2% garlic and rb2 + 0.4%garlic. in the third experiment 120 females broilers were used, raised up to 42 days of age, distributed in three treatments, as described for the second experiment. in all experiments feed intake, weight gain and feed convertion rate were evaluated. in the first and second experiments small intestine weight was also evaluated. there were no significant effects of tratments on the evaluated charactheristics in the three experiments. the birds presented normal performance, suggesting that the conditions they were raised were not suitable to get response due the utilization of growth promotors.
Cinética ruminal da fra??o fibrosa de volumosos para ruminantes
Muniz, Elaine Barbosa;Mizubuti, Ivone Yurika;Pereira, Elzania Sales;Pimentel, Patrícia Guimar?es;Ribeiro, Edson Luiz de Azambuja;Pinto, Andréa Pereira;
Revista Ciência Agron?mica , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-66902012000300025
Abstract: the objectives of the present work were to characterize and determine the estimates of the parameters relating to the kinetics of ruminal degradation of neutral detergent fiber (ndf) in hays from forest pasture, the jujube plant, mororo, oats and tifton 85, and silages from corn, sorghum and forage cactus. the bromatologic-chemical composition, the degradation coefficients and the effect of ruminal fill of the ndf, were all determined. the bromatologic-chemical characteristics of the feeds under evaluation displayed variations in their nutritional components. the potentially degradable insoluble fraction of the ndf, corresponding to the b2 fraction of the studied feeds, showed variable deterioration. hays from forest pasture, the jujube plant and mororo showed lower values for the potentially degradable fraction. the silages from corn and sorghum showed a small variation in the potentially degradable fraction and in the indigestible fraction, as well as in the degradation rate of the potentially digestible ndf. the highest total retention time was observed for forest pasture, the jujube plant and mororo followed by the silages, with the lowest values for this variable found in the hays from oats and tifton 85. forages, evaluated from semiarid regions (forest pasture, jujube and mororo), may limit dry-matter intake due to lower values of the potentially degradable fraction and higher values of the indigestible fraction. the effect of ndf ruminal fill is determined by the integration of various fiber characteristics. thus the same restrictive inferences on physical intake cannot be made for any and all sources of fiber.
The Synergy of Combined Use of DMSO and Bronsted Acid (Ionic Liquid) as a Catalyst Part I: Efficient Niementowski Synthesis of Modified Quinazolinones  [PDF]
Muthu K. Kathiravan, Rajeshwar R. Jalnapurkar, Trupti S. Chitre, Riyaj S. Tamboli, Kumar V. Srinivasan
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2011.11003
Abstract: A new rapid and versatile approach using Ionic liquid/DMSO as a chemical reagent for the synthesis of fused heterocyclic compounds in a highly efficient way is described. This method offers the advantages of proceeding in neutral conditions, giving high to excellent isolated yields (83–92%) for Niementowski synthesis with easy workup procedure. The inherent Bronsted acidity of ionic liquid and high polarity of both IL and DMSO resulted in a significant enhancement in the reaction rate.
Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activities of Ionic Liquids with Halogen Anion  [PDF]
You Yu, Yi Nie
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2011.23033
Abstract: To investigate the eco-toxicity of ionic liquids (ILs), experiments on growth of three kinds of bacteria were carried out for six common ILs with halogen anion by a micro-calorimetric method at 310 k. The results indicate that the growth of all the bacteria was inhibited in the presence of ILs. In addition, all ILs at definite concentrations show some toxicity to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Anti-microbial activities of the ILs with halogen anion are strongly related to structures of the ILs. An increase in alkyl group chain length corresponds with an increase in toxicity, and the ILs with pyridinium cation exhibit stronger restraining effect than the same series ILs with imidazolium cation.
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