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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 16509 matches for " guild structure "
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A composi??o da avifauna do campus da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, norte do Paraná, Brasil
Lopes, Edson V.;Anjos, Luiz dos;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752006000100006
Abstract: this study analyzed the spatial distribution of the universidade estadual de londrina's (uel) avifaunal in several habitats (forest, scattered trees, buildings and surroundings, shrubs, aquatic and grassland). besides that, a comparative analysis about the richness and composition of species and the guild structure of forest birds was carried out between the bird community witch was recorded in a forest remnant of universidade estadual de londrina campus and the bird communities of one forest remnant in a country area, two forest remnants in an urban area and a continuous forest area. field data were derived by transect count from january 2001 to december 2002 in 48 samples. a total of 174 species were recorded, being the forest and scattered trees habitats the highest species richness, while the aquatic and the grassland habitats presented the lowest species numbers. the species richness recorded at the campus forest remnant was similar to that recorded in a continuous forest area and a country area and higher than the one recorded in a urban area. the s?rensen index showed similar and relatively high values between the campus and the four other areas. on another hand, the guild structure of forest birds of the campus showed greater similarity to that an urban area and a country area (spearman rank correlation a = 0,5). at the campus and also in a urban area, a diminution of the large frugivorous and creeper species occurred and an increase of forest edge species related to a continuous forest area and a country area.
GUILD STRUCTURE OF GRASSHOPPER COMMUNITY IN THE GRASSLAND OF WEST JILIN PROVINCE
吉林省西部草原蝗虫群落的集团结构

Li Hong-Shi,
李宏实

生态学报 , 1991,
Abstract: In this article, the developing theory of guild in ecology is applied to study on the guild structure of grasshopper community in the grassland of west Jilin prvince. This grasshopper community consisted of 13 species of grasshopper. The cluster analysis and principal components analysis were made on the basis of foraging behavior and habitat choice as indicators to divide this grasshopper community into four guilds.They were Euchorthippus unicolor, Oxya chinensis, "the guild of perching on the surface of earch and foraging in lower level", and "the guild of perching on the plant and foraging in upper level", The ecological relationships within the guilds and between the different guilds and the effects of environmental factors on the behaviors of grasshopper were studied and reasonaly explained from point-view of ecology. Some issues concerning the theories of guild and competition were also discussed.
Varia??es da fisionomia, diversidade e composi??o de guildas da comunidade arbórea em um fragmento de floresta semidecidual em Lavras, MG
Nunes, Yule Roberta Ferreira;Mendon?a, Andrea Vita Reis;Botezelli, Luciana;Machado, Evandro Luiz Mendon?a;Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira de;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062003000200005
Abstract: the purpose of the present study was to analyze differences in physiognomic structure, species diversity, and species guild composition of the tree community of different sectors of a tropical semideciduous forest fragment. each sector varies in terms of regeneration phase and exposure to the forest edges. the forest fragment, which has an area of 5.8ha and is situated in lavras municipality, minas gerais state, brazil (21°13'40''s; 44°57'50''w), was classified into four sectors and underwent a census of all trees with dbh > 5.0cm. the sectors were compared for tree density and basal area, distribution of heights and diameters, species diversity, and frequency of trees per regeneration, dispersal, and stratification guilds. the sectors that were more lightly disturbed in the past, tall interior and tall edge, showed higher tree basal areas, lower tree densities (particularly for smaller size classes), and higher proportions of individuals of shade-tolerant tree species and tall tree species, than the more heavily disturbed sectors, low interior and low edge. these differences indicate that the tall sectors are at a more advanced regeneration phase. the edge sectors had higher frequency of trees of anemochorous species than the interior sectors. each edge sector had higher species diversity than its interior partner. it was concluded that the analyzed parameters may serve as efficient means of assessment of past disturbance severity as well as of present regeneration phase and edge effects.
Himenópteros parasitóides associados a pupas de Methona themisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil
Nardi, Cristiane;Guerra, Tania M.;Orth, Afonso I.;Tavares, Marcelo T.;
Iheringia. Série Zoologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0073-47212006000300014
Abstract: the goals of this study were to know the parasitoid guild associated to pupae of methona themisto (hübner, 1818), evaluate the relative abundance of each species of parasitoid and the effect of parasitism on the host mortality. a total of 160 pupae of m. themisto were collected, 80 in october 2001 and 80 in october 2002. they were maintained at 25 ± 2,0oc and photophase of 14 hours, daily observed until parasitoid or butterfly emergence. five parasitoid species were obtained from m. themisto pupae: brachymeria annulata (fabricius, 1793), b. mnestor (walker, 1841) (chalcididae), neotheronia sp. (ichneumonidae), palmistichus elaeisis delvare & lasalle, 1993, and tetrastichus sp. (eulophidae). only the genera brachymeria and neotheronia occurred in both years of the study, the former was more abundant in 2001 and the latter in 2002. the other species of parasitoids occurred only in the second year of the study. these are the first records of b. annulata, b. mnestor, neotheronia sp. and p. elaeisis as parasitoids of m. themisto.
The World of Ottoman Guilds: The Issue of Monopoly/// Osmanl Loncalar n n Dünyas : Tekel Meselesi
Abdülmennan M. ALTINTA?
History Studies : International Journal of History , 2010,
Abstract: The guilds had a very important position in terms of the socio-economic life of the cities. The need for them in big cities like Istanbul was much higher. The state gave importance to the working flawlessly of the guilds which were implementing a significant function in meeting the state’s own and the city public’s needs. So as to provide this order, the guilds were working within an agreement that was determining their domestic affairs, production standards, their relations with the state and other guilds. Besides this, the state permitted the determination of the guilds’ working fields through monopoly and thus facilitated the business of the guilds.
Het chirurgijnsgilde van Amersfoort
W. Veltheer
Tijdschrift voor de Geschiedenis der Geneeskunde, Natuurwetenschappen, Wiskunde en Techniek , 1979,
Abstract: Wanting
Influence of potential cavity resources on secondary cavity-nesters and breeding bird community composition
潜在洞巢资源差异对次级洞巢鸟及繁殖鸟类群落的影响

Daqing Zhou,Chunfa Zhou,Wenhong Deng,
周大庆
,周春发,邓文洪

生物多样性 , 2009,
Abstract: To explore how density of potential cavity resources (including cavities and artificial nest boxes) affects the composition and distribution of secondary cavity-nesting guilds, as well as the community structure of breeding birds, we studied plots with different densities of nest cavities in Dagang Forestry Farm, Jilin Province, China from November 2007 to July 2008. Based on the density of cavity resources, the nine sample sites were divided into three treatments, i.e., NBP (nest-box plots with less cavities and high-density nest boxes), LDP (low-density cavities plots without nest boxes) and HDP (high-density cavities plots without nest boxes). We then surveyed avian communities and noted the use of cavities and artificial nest boxes. All the treatments contained four primary cavity excavators, and three species were the same. Four secondary cavity nesters were widespread in the three treatments, including the great tit {Parus major), marsh tit (P. palustris), yellow-rumped flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia) and eurasian nuthatch (Sitta europaea). Total densities of secondary cavity nesters in NBP and HDP were higher than that of LDP. Densities of great tits and yellow-rumped flycatchers were higher in NBP and HDP than in LDP, because they were major users of nest boxes. There were no significant differences in the densities of marsh tits and eurasian nuthatches among treatments. A significant positive correlation was detected between the density of primary cavity excavators and cavity density, and also between the density of secondary cavity nesters and potential cavity resources. Bird species diversity indices were lower in LDP than in NBP and HDP. Nest-box addition could potentially regulate the composition of avian communities by increasing bird species diversity indices. We observed no differences in evenness, species richness indices or probability of interspecific encounter (PIE) among treatments, and Serensen similarity indices differed little among treatments. There were no obvious differences in structure of breeding bird guilds between HDP and LDP. Nine species were found in all the three treatments, and their densities were not affected by the temporary increase in secondary cavity nesters. We hypothesize that density of primary cavity excavators determines the density of cavities in forests, which may change distributional patterns of secondary cavity-nester guilds, and therefore affect the structure of breeding avian communities.
Seasonal Dynamics of the Avian Guild Structure of Mountain Secondary Forest in Dabieshan Mountain
大别山山地次生林鸟类群落集团结构的季节变化

刘 彬,周立志 汪文革,沈三宝,韩德民
动物学研究 , 2009,
Abstract: Between December 2007 and December 2008, we studied the avian guilds structure of the secondary broad-leaved forests in Yaoluoping, Dabieshan Mountain, Anhui Province. We used focal sampling method to observe feeding behaviors of the bird community, and collected food resource utilization data. PC-ORD was used in Cluster Analysis for the guild structures in the two seasons, and Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) for the feeding patterns of the 32 birds in both the breeding/non-breeding seasons. Results indicated that during the non-breeding season, the bird community could be divided into four guilds: ground forager, shrub forager, tree trunk (branches) forager, and canopy forager. In addition to the four listed guilds, there was an air foraging guild during the breeding season. The first axis of DCA represented the information of the foraging height, the second axis represented the information of the foraging position, and the third axis represented the information of the foraging pattern and the foraging matrix. The ordination for the 32 birds by the first two DCA axes indicated the behavior of 6 birds mainly changed along the first DCA axis, which represented the change information of the foraging height. Additionally, behavior of 4 birds mainly changed along the second DCA axis, which represented the change information of the foraging position.
(The Universal Interrogative Participle)* is going on with the Authors Guild?
Emily Ford
In the Library with the Lead Pipe , 2011,
Abstract: * The Authors Guild won’t give up. Their settlement agreement with Google Books was rejected by Judge Chin on March 22nd and will now be going to trial. But that’s not enough for the Authors Guild. The organization seems bound and determined for copyright legislation to occur, and for that legislation to change copyright law [...]
Fauna de Coleópteros Scarabaeidae Laparosticti y Trogidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) asociados al Bosque Mesofilo de Monta?a, cafetales bajo sombra y comunidades derivadas en el Centro de Veracruz, México
Deloya, Cuauhtémoc;Parra-Tabla, Victor;Delfín-González, Hugo;
Neotropical Entomology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2007000100002
Abstract: beetles were collected from april 2002 to july 2003 from the following sites in the centre of the state of veracruz located every 200 m along an altitudinal gradient (1000 - 1400 m asl): three fragments of cloud forest, three shaded coffee plantations, an open canopy coffee plantation, secondary forest, and a pasture. a total of 9,982 specimens were captured, belonging to the families scarabaeidae and trogidae, and representing 21 genera and 50 species. the genera ataenius harold, onthophagus latreille and aphodius illiger represented 48% of the species of scarabaeidae. species richness was found to decrease with increasing altitude; there were 36 species at 1000 m asl, 27 species between 1200 and 1300 m asl, and 26 species at 1400 m asl. abundance along the altitudinal gradient follows a pattern of few abundant species and many species with few specimens. beetle activity is related to precipitation. in the nine communities studied, species richness was observed to increase when precipitation was greater than 100 mm at the beginning of the rainy season. on the landscape scale, there were 44 species during the rainy season, 22 during the windy nortes season, and 24 during the dry season. in terms of trophic guild, 40% of the beetles captured were saprophagous that feed on decomposing organic material from plants and 60% were saprophagous that feed on decomposing organic material from animals (30% necrophagous, 26% coprophagous, 4% telio-necrophagous).
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