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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 26147 matches for " growth rate "
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To an Axiomatic Model of Rate of Growth  [PDF]
Václav Studeny, Ivan Mezník
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.49179

In the paper an axiomatic approach to express rates of growth is presented. The formula is given of rate of growth at a point as the limit case of rate of growth on an interval and the inverse formula is derived to compute present and future value of capital for an integrable rate of growth. Incidentally some inconsistencies in currently used formulas are pointed out.

Stability Analysis of Electromagnetic Ordinary and Extraordinary Modes  [PDF]
N. Noreen, S. Zaheer, H. A. Shah
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.710101
Abstract: By using kinetic theory, we derived the general dispersion relations for ordinary mode (O-mode) and Extra-ordinary mode (X-mode) in anisotropic magnetized plasma. The effects of energy anisotropy, magnetic field to density ratio (\"\") and the plasma beta \"\" on the propagation characteristics, have been analyzed. The stability analysis and the growth rates have been presented. The marginal threshold condition for oscillatory and purely growing mode has been obtained for higher harmonics and we have also calculated their growth rates in terms of plasma beta \"\" and energy anisotropy \"\". The X-mode satisfies the instability condition according to difference of geometry with the O-Mode. These modes are important for spherical tokamaks, and their coupling leads to the generation of the Bernstein mode, which causes the heating effects.
Monumental Behaviorism and Courageousness in Industrialized Economies Central Banks for Developing Economies Lessons  [PDF]
Seum Chhay, Nai-Wen Li, Lei Wang
Journal of Financial Risk Management (JFRM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jfrm.2016.52011
Abstract: This paper looks for the monumental behaviorism and courageousness in the industrialized economies central banks’ monetary tools policy including interest rate policy and exchange rate regime is necessary to promote and boost the economic systems. The goal of paper is in a favor of the developing economies central banks to hail the comparative advantage from industrialized economies central banks functions and responsibilities, definitely in a usefulness to produce economic growth, high-employment, low-inflation targeting, price stability, and to mitigate credit defaults, financial risks, and volatility of assets price. This is of great importance for the effects of the central bank obligations on the positive outcomes such as economic growth, sustained macroeconomic parameters and constant financial sectors.
A Two-Step Growth Curve: Approach to the von Bertalanffy and Gompertz Equations  [PDF]
Laura Rogers-Bennett, Donald W. Rogers
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2016.65023
Abstract: Many curves have been proposed and debated to model individual growth of marine invertebrates. Broadly, they fall into two classes, first order (e.g. von Bertalanffy) and sigmoidal (e.g. Gompertz). We provide an innovative approach which demonstrates that the growth curves are not mutually exclusive but that either may arise from a simple three-stage growth model \"\" with two steps (k1 and k2) depending on the ratio of the growth parameters \"\". The new approach predicts sigmoidal growth when \"\" is close to 1, but if either growth from stage A to stage B or B to C is fast relative to the other, the slower of the two steps becomes the growth limiting step and the model reduces to first order growth. The resulting curves indicate that there is a substantial difference in the estimated size at time t during the period of active growth. This novel two-step rate model generates a growth surface that allows for changes in the rate parameters over time as reflected in the new parameter n(t) = k1(t) -?k2(t). The added degree of freedom brings about individual growth trajectories across the growth surface that is not easily mapped using conventional growth modeling techniques. This two (or more) stage growth model yields a growth surface that allows for a wide range of growth trajectories, accommodating staged growth, growth lags, as well as indeterminate growth and can help resolve debates as to which growth curves should be used to model animal growth. This flexibility can improve estimates of growth parameters used in population models influencing model outcomes and ultimately management decisions.=
Ensuring Effectiveness of Economic and Monetary Policies through Considering Economic Schools of Thought: Lebanon 1990-2010  [PDF]
Georges N. Nehme
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24020
Abstract: Decision makers and executives should have a macroeconomic approach in planning and fixing economic and monetary policies for their countries. A national economy should be considered as a system including three interdependent markets: Financial market, Labor market, and Goods and Services market. Any attempt to practice an economic or monetary policy emphasizing on one or two of these markets and neglecting the third will lead to public debts, high unemployment and/or inflation rates. This neglect will also increase the financial crises risk especially for developing countries. These developing countries are suffering from being not able to apply liberal policies, compete in the international multilateral trade system, and benefit from globalization. Why Lebanese government is still insisting on applying liberal policies, high tax rate, low government expenses and investments, fixed exchange rate, and high interest rate? Is it reasonable and possible to have a developed financial market with bank deposits equaling three times the Lebanese GDP, and at the same time, a very weak labor and goods and services markets characterized by 18% unemployment rate and a very low consumers’ purchasing power? How does Lebanon have a huge public debt equaling twice its national GDP and be considered by the IMF as the fourth country in economic growth progression in the region? Why not considering Mundell’s incompatibility triangle and Kaldor’s magic square to analyze this critical economic situation? Is switching from a currency board to a forward-looking crawling PEG one of the factors to break this vicious circle?
Determination of Crystallization Kinetics and Size Distribution Parameters of Agglomerated Calcium Carbonate Nanoparticles during the Carbonation of a Suspension of Lime  [PDF]
Mathilde Schnebelen, Myriam Ricaud, Alexandra Jakob, Didier Sy, Edouard Plasari, Hervé Muhr
Crystal Structure Theory and Applications (CSTA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/csta.2015.42003
Abstract: The reaction studied in this work is the synthesis of nanometric size calcium carbonate by carbonation of a suspension of lime, which represents the most common industrial route. The carbonation was proceeded in a pilot batch reactor. This article presents a method for the determination of nucleation and crystal growth rates of calcium carbonate by following two macroscopic parameters: the mass production rate by precipitation and the specific surface area. The results give a constant nucleation rate around 4 × 1015m-3 ·s-1 and a decreasing crystal growth rate between 0.2 and 2 × 10-10 m·s-1. It also provides the main characteristics of the monoparticle size distributions (i.e. the mean particle sizes and in situ coefficient of variation) in the agglomerates, which cannot be obtained by other known methods. For the carbonation carried out in this work, the mean mass particle size at the end of the reaction is about 300 nm and the coefficient of variation of 0.28 indicates a narrow particle size distribution of the monoparticles.
The Origin of Piketty’s Inequality r > g Considered in a General Framework  [PDF]
Alberto Benítez Sánchez
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.810115
Abstract: This paper studies the origin of Piketty’s inequality between the profit rate (r) and the growth rate of the national income (g) by focusing on the growth rate (γ) of the r / g ratio in an economy that grows gradually along a succession of production cycles. It is shown that, given a succession of three production cycles, the value of γ in the last cycle is determined by the equation 1+γ=(1+v)(1+k) where v is the growth rate of the profit share (α) in the last cycle while κ is a function of three variables: the income/capital ratio of the last cycle, the values of the savings rate in the first two cycles and those of the growth rate of the income/capital ratio in the last two. The equation just presented is also relevant for a succession of more than three production cycles for which the yearly values of r, g and α are known. Indeed, in this case it is possible to calculate the average values of γ and v from the empirical data, which then can be used in the equation to determine the average value of κ. Once the three variables are known,
Adaptability of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Horseradish) Tree Seedlings to Three Temperature Regimes  [PDF]
Quintin E. Muhl, Elsa S. du Toit, Petrus J. Robbertse
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2011.26092
Abstract: Moringa oleifera trees are naturally found in tropical climates around the world and therefore the extent of their adaptability to cooler climates was the main objective of this study. A total of 264 trees, made up of an equal number hardened and non-hardened seedlings were randomly assigned to three temperature-controlled greenhouses each with a different fluctuating night/day temperature regime (TR) namely; 10/20°C ± 2°C, 15/25°C ± 2°C and 20/30°C ± 2°C. During the 32-week trial period, biweekly measurements of tree height, stem diameter and leaf area estimates of each individual tree within all three temperature regimes (TRS) were taken. The 20/30°C TR was the most favorable towards overall tree growth, as the highest values were obtained across most measured parameters. The increase in temperature resulted in growth rate increases of over 650% between the 10/20°C and 20/30°C and over 250% between the 10/20°C and 15/25°C night/day TRS. The hardening-off pre-treatment increased both final tree height and stem diameter, resulting in increases of 3.09X (10/20°C), 1.44X (15/25°C) and 1.23X (20/30°C) compared to their non-hardened off counterparts. The average tree leaf area increases followed a similar trend in both tree height and stem diameter, but expressed more volatility at the higher TRS. Although the average leaf area increased with the increase in TR and remained higher for the duration of the trial, cycles of regular leaf drop and renewed flushes were prevalent at both the 15/25°C and 20/30°C temperature treatments.
Application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Modeling in Kinetics of Methane Hydrate Growth  [PDF]
Jalal Foroozesh, Abbas Khosravani, Adel Mohsenzadeh, Ali Haghighat Mesbahi
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2013.411073
Abstract: Determining thermodynamic and kinetic conditions for natural gas hydrate formation is an interesting subject for many researches. At the present, suitable information including experimental data and the thermodynamic models of hydrate formation are available which predict the thermodynamic conditions of hydrate formation. Conversely, there is no sufficient study about the kinetics of natural gas hydrate and most of experimental data and kinetic models in the literature are incomplete. Artificial Intelligence (AI) having sub-branches such as artificial neural network (ANN), and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) has been proved as a novel tool with acceptable accuracy for modeling of engineering systems. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the kinetics of hydrate formation by predicting the relationship of growth rate of methane hydrate with temperature and pressure using ANN and ANFIS. This goal can also be achieved by solving complicated governing equations while artificial intelligence provides an easier way to accomplish this goal. The result has shown that ANIFS is a more potential tool in predication relationship of kinetics of hydrate formation with temperature and pressure in comparison of ANN in present work.
Slow Growing Pre-Weaning Piglets Have Altered Adipokine Gene Expression  [PDF]
Tim G. Ramsay, M. J. Stoll, T. J. Caperna
Open Journal of Animal Sciences (OJAS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojas.2014.44024
Abstract: Growth rate affects adipose tissue development and variations in growth rate may potentially impact adipokine expression. Samples of subcutaneous (SQ) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissues and longissimus muscle were collected at day 21 of age from the fastest and slowest growing piglets within seven litters. Reverse transcription and real-time PCR were used to quantify adipokine mRNA abundance. Leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα ) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA abundance were lower in SQ from slow growing piglets (SGP) than in fast growing piglets (FGP, P < 0.05). Macrophage migration inhibitory factor and TNFα gene expression were reduced in PR from SGP in comparison to FGP (P < 0.05). Interleukin 1β (IL1β), IL15 and LPL were increased in the longissimus of SGP relative to FGP (P < 0.05). Analysis of mRNA abundance for these adipokines within adipose tissue at day 21 of age demonstrated that the effect of growth rate on adipokine expression varies among different adipokines and the internal and external sites of adipose tissue deposition (PR versus SQ). The increase in longissimus expression of LPL and IL15 suggests that nutrient partitioning for energy use may be greater in the skeletal muscle of the SGP.
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