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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1905 matches for " glycine max "
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Gas Exchanges and Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Soybean under Water Restriction  [PDF]
Paula Cerezini, Antonio Eduardo Pípolo, Mariangela Hungria, Marco Antonio Nogueira
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2014.526419
Abstract: Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in soybean is vulnerable to drought; however, there are genotypic variations among soybean cultivars regarding the ability to keep BNF under moderate water restriction. The aim of this study was to evaluate parameters related to gas exchanges and regulation of BNF in soybean genotypes BNF drought-tolerant (R01-581F and R01-416F), or drought-susceptible (CD 215 and BRS 317), submitted to adequate water supply or restriction between 45 and 55 days after emergence. We searched for traits associated with tolerance/susceptibility to drought, which might be useful in the selection of drought-tolerant soybean genotypes. Plant biomass was not affected under water restriction, but the number and dry weight of nodules reduced by 33% and 12%, respectively, in the average of genotypes. Drought-tolerant genotypes were more effective in maintaining gas exchanges under water restriction. Under water restriction, all genotypes increased the concentration of ureides in nodules, but only the susceptible genotypes showed that in leaves. The maintenance of gas exchanges and N metabolism regulation under water restriction in genotype R01-581F suggests that these parameters may be used to characterize soybean genotypes that can be sources of drought tolerance in genetic breeding programs.
Field Efficacy of Chemical Pesticides against Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Infesting Soybean in Brazil  [PDF]
José Fernando Jurca Grigolli, André Luis Faleiros Louren??o, Crébio José ávila
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.64058
Abstract: The soybean pod borer, Maruca vitrata, can cause great damage by attacking pods from soybean plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the field efficacy of chemical pesticides, when applied in spray, against soybean pod borer. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of Fundação, MS, in Maracaju, MS, Brazil, in the growing season 2012/2013. The randomized block design was used with six treatments (teflubenzuron, flubendiamide, methomyl, chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos, and a control treatment without insecticide) and five replications, on cultivar BMX Turbo RR. Evaluations were performed at one, four, seven, 10, and 14 days after pesticides application (DAA), and were based on the percentage of attacked plants with M. vitrata presence, and the number of alive larvae per plant. On each evaluation, 10 plants per plot were analyzed. The data were subjected to ANOVA and the treatment means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Pesticides teflubenzuron, flubendiamide, chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin, and chlorpyrifos significantly reduced the percentage of attacked plants by M. vitrata. Chlorpyrifos, teflubenzuron, and chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin showed higher field efficacy to control M. vitrata from the first day after application. However, flubendiamide showed good efficacy from 10 days after application, and joined the group with higher efficacy (chlorpyrifos, teflubenzuron, and chlorantraniliprole + lambda-cyhalothrin). Methomyl showed no field efficacy against legume pod borer.
Systemic Acquired Resistance of Soybean to Soybean Rust Induced by Shale Water  [PDF]
Yeshwant R. Mehta, Mariana S. Marangoni, Janaina N. Matos, José Marcos G. Mandarino, Rafael Galbieri
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.614227
Abstract: Shale water as a by-product obtained by Petrobras, Brazil, during the process of extraction of petroleum from fossil rock may act as an inducer of Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) to some plant pathogens. The objective of the present investigation was to verify the effect of seed treatment and foliar application with shale water in inducing SAR of soybean to soybean rust under greenhouse and field conditions. In greenhouse experiments, seed treatment alone with shale water significantly reduced the severity of soybean rust and the control efficiency after 11 and 14 days after inoculation was between 54.1% and 57.8%. Whereas seed treatment and only one foliar application with shale water the control efficiency due to SAR 14 and 11 days after inoculation was between 99.7% and 100%, respectively. Such treatments gave similar results under field experiments where the control efficiency of soybean rust was between 79.0% and 99.35% in shale water treated plots as compared to the untreated plots, in 2015. Consequently, this resulted in yield increase between 14.8% and 28.8% depending upon the seed treatment and foliar applications with shale water alone or in mixture with a fungicide. Seed health testing revealed lower number of seeds infected with some pathogens in treatments where either shale water or fungicide was used. Seed treatment and one foliar application were sufficient to induce SAR against soybean rust. This is the first report to demonstrate SAR of soybean to soybean rust induced by shale water. Patent regarding this investigation is deposited with Petrobras, Brazil, under the number EVP 14/022.
Effect of Chitosaccharides in Nodulation and Growth in Vitro of Inoculated Soybean  [PDF]
Daimy Costales, Alejandro Bernardo Falcón, María Caridad Nápoles, Julien de Winter, Pascal Gerbaux, Robertus Cornelis Adrianus Onderwater, Ruddy Wattiez, Juan Carlos Cabrera
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.79131
Abstract: The influence of chitosaccharides on the symbiotic interaction between Bradyrhizobium and soybean was examined. The results show that chitosaccharides either positively or negatively affect soybean nodulation or plant growth depending on their molecular weight, concentration and the application methods. When directly added to the in vitro culture media, chitosan of high molecular weight inhibit Bradyrhizobium viability in a dose dependent manner while chitooligosaccharides reduce slightly the bacteria viability only at concentration equal or higher than 50 mg·L-1. Chitooligosaccharides significantly enhance nodule formation and dry mass in soybean roots at doses between 10 and 100 mg·L-1. Both types of chitosaccharides, at the highest doses (>500 mg·L-1), negatively affect plant height and root size, whereas medium doses (50 to 100 mg·L-1) increase slightly leave number. Under field conditions, foliar application of both chitosaccharides enhances growth and nodulation of soybean
Análise lise da estabilidade e previsibilidade da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja produzidas em Cristalina, Goiás = Stability and predictability analyses of the physiological quality of soybean seeds produced in Cristalina, Goiás (Brazil)
éder Matsuo,Tuneo Sediyama,Hélio Bandeira Barros,Cosme Dami?o Cruz
Acta Scientiarum : Agronomy , 2008,
Abstract: Avaliaram-se a estabilidade e a previsibilidade da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de 13 genótipos de soja [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], produzidas em três localidades do município de Cristalina, Estado de Goiás. Os ensaios de melhoramento foram conduzidos no campo no ano agrícola 2004/05. Os ensaios de avalia o da qualidade dassementes foram realizados nos laboratórios e casa-de-vegeta o da Universidade Federal de Vi osa, instalados no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repeti es. Foram realizados os testes de germina o em papel toalha, emergência em leito de areia, índice de velocidade de emergência e análises de estabilidade pelos métodos propostos por Lin e Binns (1988) e Annicchiarico (1992). As médias de porcentagem de germina o, emergência de plantulas e índice de velocidade de germina o foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a5% de probabilidade. Na avalia o da qualidade fisiológica de sementes, foi identificado, como melhor, o genótipo 7B1454170 e como pior, o genótipo 9B1459189. Os genótipos Emgopa 313, 7B1454170, 11B145341 e DM339 foram classificados como de alta estabilidade para qualidade fisiológica, e os genótipos 3B1346193 e 9B1459189classificaram-se como de baixa previsibilidade. Os métodos de estima o utilizados foram eficazes, coerentes entre si e permitiram identificar, entre os genótipos avaliados, os de maior estabilidade e previsibilidade. The physiological quality stability and predictability of seeds from 13 soybean genotypes [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were analyzed. They were produced at three different locations in the town of Cristalina,Goiás. The field improvement trials were held in the agricultural year of 2004/05. The seed quality evaluation studies took place in the laboratories and in the greenhouse of the Federal University of Vi osa, in a completely randomized design with four repetitions. Germination in paper towels, emergence in sand bed, index of emergence speed and stability analyses were tested through the methods proposed by Lin and Binns (1988) and Annicchiarico (1992). The germination percentage averages, the emergence of plants and the emergence speed index were compared through Tukey’s test at 5% probability. In the evaluation of the seeds’ physiological quality, genotype 7B1454170 was identified as the best, and genotype9B1459189 as the worst. The genotypes Emgopa 313, 7B1454170, 11B145341 and DM339 were classified as offering high stability in physiological quality, and genotypes 3B1346193 and 9B1459189 offered low predictability. The estimation methods used were efficient,coherent amo
Avalia??o da tolerancia de cultivares de soja à ferrugem asiática no oeste da Bahia
Oliveira, Ana C. B. de;Godoy, Cláudia V.;Martins, M?nica C.;
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-41582005000600016
Abstract: the use of tolerance as a form of control for soybean rust can be a viable alternative, since qualitative resistance has been shown to be unstable in function of fungal variability. this trial was carried out at in western bahia in 2003/04, with the objective of assessing the tolerance of the main soybean (glycine max) cultivars used in the area. four early maturity cultivars [mg/br 46 (conquista), emgopa 315, brs corisco and m-soy 8411] and four cultivars of late maturity (brs barreiras, m-soy 9350, ft 106 and brs sambaíba) were assessed. tolerance was quantified by determining the difference of yield in subplots treated and untreated with fungicide. the cultivars mg/br 46 (conquista) and m-soy 8411 did not present significant yield differences; however, this could not be attributed to tolerance in function of the low severity observed in this trial. this difference could be attributed to escape, since when the rust obtained higher values of severity, the two cultivars were already in the final stages of development. although the maximum severity observed in this trial has been low (30.5% for brs barreiras), except mg/br 46 (conquista) and m-soy 8411, the others cultivars assessed presented significant differences among the subplots treated and untreated with fungicide. this shows an absence of tolerance in the main cultivars commercially planted in western bahia. it was observed that early maturity cultivars had inferior yield reductions than late maturity cultivars.
Descri??o, produtividade e estabilidade da cultivar de soja IAC-24, resistente a insetos
Miranda, Manoel Albino Coelho de;Braga, Nelson Raimundo;Louren??o, André Luiz;Miranda, Fernando Toledo Santos de;Unêda, Sandra Helena;Ito, Margarida Fumiko;
Bragantia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87052003000100004
Abstract: the breeding line iac 93-3335 (iac-24) was selected from the cross iac 80-1177 x iac 83-288 through single seed descent method (ssd) by the iac breeding program to increase insect resistance. this cultivar has in its background two important genotypes: pi 229358 e pi 227687 (usda germplasm), as sources of resistance to insect. the cultivar was evaluated at experimental fields in concei??o das alagoas (mg), campinas (sp) and mococa (sp) (1994/95), in concei??o das alagoas, campinas, tarum? (sp) and votuporanga (sp) (1995/96) and concei??o das alagoas, campinas, tarum?, votuporanga, mococa, cap?o bonito (sp) and ribeir?o preto (sp) (1996/97). the trials were installed using randomized block design, with four replications. results of productivity indicate that the cultivar iac-24 shows lower yields at campinas, with 2302 kg.ha-1, and higher yields at concei??o das alagoas, with 4003 kg.ha-1. the iac-24 soybean exhibits long juvenile period, flowering time at 57 days, and complete life cicle around 124 days after seed germination. plants show brown pubescence, yellow seeds with brown hilum. the new cultivar is resistant to bacterial pustule (xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines), "wildfire" (pseudomonas seringae pv tabaci), stem cancker (diaporthe phaseolorum f.sp. meridionalis) and soybean mosaic virus(smv). joint analysis showed significant effects of genotypes, environments and interactions. for each environment, joint analysis were also realized. the iac-24 cultivar showed the highest yield (3.480 kg.ha-1). the dunnet test indicated that the difference was significant when compared with iac-15. among the lines, iac-24 showed the lowest defoliation by caterpillars, and presented low pod damage similar to iac-100 soybean cultivar. so, the new cultivar is resistant to insect damage, has good yield, and should be recommended for cultivation in state of s?o paulo and similar environments.
Descri??o, produtividade e estabilidade da cultivar de soja IAC-23, resistente a insetos
Miranda, Manoel Albino Coelho de;Braga, Nelson Raimundo;Louren??o, André Luiz;Miranda, Fernando Toledo Santos de;Unêda, Sandra Helena;Ito, Margarida Fumiko;
Bragantia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0006-87052003000100003
Abstract: the breeding line iac 93-345(iac-23) was selected from the cross br-6 xiac 83-23 through single seed descent method (ssd) to increase insect resistance, and was evaluated at fourteen environments at s?o paulo (sp) and minas gerais (mg) states: concei??o das alagoas (mg), mococa and campinas (sp) (1994/95); in concei??o das alagoas, mococa, campinas, morro agudo, tarum? and ribeir?o preto (1996/97); and campinas (1998/99). conclusive trials were conducted in randomized blocks with four replications. this cultivar shows long juveniie period, flowering time at 43 days, and complete life cicle around 106 days after seed germination, with plant height about 67 cm. the average yield was 3017 kg.ha-1. plants show brown pubescence, yellow seeds with brown hilum. the new cultivar is resistant to: bacterial pustule (xanthomonas campestris pv. glycines), wildfire (pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci), stem canker (phomopsis phaseoli f.sp. meridionalis) and soybean mosaic birus (smv). iac-23 productivity, large stability and resistance levels to leaf and pod feeders insects is similar to that observed for iac-17, and superior to that of ias-5. the cultivar iac-23 is then recommended for cultivation in the state of s?o paulo and in similar environmental conditions.
Novas características para diferencia??o de cultivares de soja pela análise discriminante
Nogueira, Ana Paula Oliveira;Sediyama, Tuneo;Cruz, Cosme Dami?o;Reis, Múcio Silva;Pereira, Derval Gomes;Jangarelli, Marcelo;
Ciência Rural , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782008005000025
Abstract: cultivar differentiation is carried out by the least margin of specific descriptors in each species. nowadays, approximately 38 descriptors, including the obligatory and additional ones, are used to differentiate soybean cultivars. since these descriptors are still not enough, it is necessary to increase the number of descriptors used, which should be previously identified and evaluated. the objectives of this study were to identify and evaluate new traits for the differentiation of soybean cultivars. the experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at the plant science department of the federal university of vi?osa at four different times (two during summer and two during winter). the treatments consisted of 11 soybean cultivars arranged in a complete randomized design with five replicates. each experimental unit consisted of one pot with two plants. the following characteristics were evaluated: hypocotyl length (ch), epicotyl length (ce), petiole length of the unifoliate leaf (cpfu), base shape coefficient of the unifoliate leaf (cfb), base width coefficient of the unifoliate leaf (clb), petiole length of the first trifoliate leaf (cpft) and rachis length of terminal leaflet in the first trifoliate leaf (crft). anderson's discriminant analysis was performed, and statistical analyses were carried out using the genetics and statistics software 'programa genes'. significant differences were found for all characteristics in the four sowing times. discriminant analysis allowed the differentiation of the soybean cultivars. it was concluded that the characteristics are useful as additional descriptors of soybean cultivars.
Desempenho de genótipos de soja-hortali?a de ciclo precoce [Glycine max (L.) Merril] em diferentes densidades
Charlo, Hamilton César de O.;Castoldi, Renata;Vargas, Pablo Forlan;Braz, Leila Trevizan;Mendon?a, José Lindorico de;
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-70542008000200044
Abstract: with the aim of evaluating the performance of two genotypes of early-cycle soybeans [glycine max (l.) merril] in different spacings, a study was carried out in the experimental area of the sector of vegetable crops and aromatic medicinal plants, belonging to the department of crop sciences, college of agricultural and veterinary sciences (fcav-unesp), jaboticabal campus-sp. the experimental design used was the one of subdivided parcels, each parcel representing the genotypes and the subparcels being the densities, where four replications were used for each treatment. plots comprised four rows measuring with populations of 20, 10 and 7 plants by meter, and 0.60m between rows, where each parcel consisted of 20 plants. seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene trays with 128 pyramidal cells, contend substratum plantmax hortali?as?. transplanting was performed ten days after sowing, to a soil previously fertilized as recommended to the crop. harvesting was performed when pods reached the reproductive stage r6. the following genotypes were used: jlm010 and cnpsoi. the mean earliness, mean number of pods per plant, mean number of seeds per pod, fresh weight of 100 seeds and estimated yield of immature grains were measured. results showed that the genotype jlm010 is the best for vegetable soybean production, because a higher fresh weight of 100 seeds was obtained with a population of 7 plants by meter.
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