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Ghrelin; The Renown Hormone
H. Murat Bilgin
Dicle Medical Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Ghrelin , a 28 amino acid gastric peptide, was found to be a potent releaser of GH and in addition, actively participate in controlling energy balance and the regulation of food intake. Specifically, plasma ghrelin originates in the oxyntic gland where A-like cells exist and is secreted into the bloodstream. Lower concentrations have also been reported at various regions in the body. It is well known that ghrelin participates in the regulation of many functions in the body.
Effect of Treatment with Metformin on Omentin-1, Ghrelin and other Biochemical, Clinical Features in PCOS Patients
Mahmud Shaker,Zohair I. AL-Mashhadani,Atheer A. Mehdi
Oman Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: Polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with insulin resistance and obesity. Previous studies suggest that metformin by reducing hyperinsulinemia is clinically useful in the treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome. This study’s Objective is to observe the role of metformin in omentin1, ghrelin, and other biochemical, clinical features within three months in hyperinsulinemic women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Another aim is to assess the decrease in hyperinsulinemia and body weight by metformin in the population.Methods: This study was carried out at the Kamal AL-Samarai Hospital between June 2007 and March 2008. 60 women fulfilling the clinical and biochemical criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome and hyperinsulinemia were enrolled. Metformin was started at an oral dose of 850 mg/day for 3 months. Besides Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), serum omentin1, ghrelin, fasting insulin, fasting blood sugar and lipid profile levels were performed. After three months, all these parameters were assessed. Omentin1, ghrelin and insulin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fasting blood glucose and lipid profile were measured by colorimetric methods.Results: Mean Body Mass Index and Waist Hip Ratio had significantly decreased in the 60 polycystic ovary syndrome patients after three months of Metformin therapy. Serum levels of omentin1, ghrelin and HDL-cholesterol were increased while the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio was decreased significantly. Serum concentrations of insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA) and HOMA -cell % were also decreased significantly, the present study showed a significant increase in omentin1: insulin ratio, omentin1: HOMA ratio and omentin1: HOMA -cell% ratio.Conclusion: There was a significant an increase in omentin1: insulin ratio, omentin1: HOMA ratio and omentin1: HOMA -cell% ratio. These results in the present study are shown the first time, these factors may be useful in following improvements in insulin sensitivity in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome or obesity treated with insulin sensitizers. Further studies are needed to certify these factors in other populations with these treatment or with other insulin sensitizers or when treated with diet and exercise.
Ein Hormon stellt sich vor: Ghrelin
Resl M,Clodi M
Journal für Klinische Endokrinologie und Stoffwechsel , 2009,
Plasma Ghrelin, PYY and CCK Concentration Following Indonesian Fast Food and Western Fast Food in Obese Participant  [PDF]
Dian Handayani, Widya Rahmawati, Inggita Kusumastuty, Leny Budhi Harti, Endang Sri Wahyuni, Sri Andarini
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.79073
Abstract: This study aimed to compare the acute effect of different fast food types on appetite regulatory hormones. This was a randomized, cross over design study. After ten-hour fasting, sixteen obese participants (Body Mass Index 33.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2) received Indonesia Fast Food (IFF) followed Western Fast Food (WFF) after 1 week wash out. Both of fast foods have similar energy content but higher fat content on WFF vs IFF. Plasma ghrelin, Peptide YY (PYY) and Cholecystokinin (CCK) were measured at 30, 60 and 120 minutes after ingestions. The investigation revealed that the change of plasma ghrelin level was lower on participant consuming WFF in 120 minutes vs IFF (P < 0.05). The change of plasma PYY showed significantly higher among participant on 60 minutes following WFF vs IFF (P < 0.05). The change of plasma CCK level is lower in 30, 60 and 120 minutes after consuming WFF vs IFF (all, P < 0.001). The appetite response regarding “desire to eat” was higher after consuming IFF vs WFF. This study suggested that IFF induced feeling “want to eat” higher than WFF also induced the increasing orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, but the effects on the anorexigenic hormone (PYY) and CCK were opposite.
Usefulness of Enteral Nutritional Intake Containing Median-Chain Fatty Acids in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Weight Loss: A Pilot Study  [PDF]
Makoto Shiraishi, Kenji Isahaya, Yasuhiro Hasegawa
Advances in Parkinson's Disease (APD) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/apd.2019.81001
Abstract: Background: No solution has yet been found for the nutritional issues of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with weight loss, which affects their prognosis. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether a defined-formula diet rich in ω3 fatty acids improved nutrition through the effect of ghrelin in PD patients with weight loss. Method: Weight, serum total protein, albumin, lipids, serum ghrelin, serum acylghrelin, leptin, and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale were monitored for approximately 3 months in 11 subjects given a defined-formula diet rich in ω3 fatty acids for 3 months and 5 control subjects who received no such treatment. Results: No significant changes from baseline in serum ghrelin, acylghrelin, and leptin levels were noted after administration of the nutritional product. Meanwhile, compared with the control, changes from baseline in the levels of albumin and weight were significant after the nutritional therapy rich in
Effect of Ghrelin and Ration Composition on Milk Output and Feed Intake in Rabbits
Dorota Kowalsk , Mariusz Pietras , Pawe Bielański
Annals of Animal Science , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10220-011-0006-y
Abstract: The aim of the study was to determine plasma ghrelin concentrations in rabbits. The first part of the experiment focused on plasma ghrelin concentrations in does which were at different physiological stages and received diets with different fat contents. Plasma ghrelin levels were determined in 3-month-old rabbits after 12-hour feed withdrawal and 60 minutes after feed intake. The second part of the experiment investigated the effect of exogenous ghrelin administered to dams on the course of the lactation and weight gains of young rabbits from birth to weaning. The results of the first experiment show that plasma ghrelin levels vary according to the physiological stage of the does. The addition of 2% rapeseed oil to the diet of the does had an inhibitory effect on ghrelin secretion by significantly decreasing its plasma levels. Analysis of plasma ghrelin levels in 3-month-old rabbits subjected to feed withdrawal and following food intake revealed that ghrelin secretion increased when both oil-enriched and unsupplemented diets were fed after feed withdrawal. Ghrelin levels began to decline postprandially. The second part of the experiment demonstrated that ghrelin administered intraperitoneally to the lactating does had an effect on the milk output of the does and thus on the weight gains of the young rabbits.
Motilin and ghrelin gene experienced episodic evolution during primitive placental mammal evolution
Jing He,M. David Irwin,YaPing Zhang
Science China Life Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.1007/s11427-010-3105-6
Abstract: Motilin and ghrelin, members of a structure-function-related hormone family, play important roles in gastrointestinal function, regulation of energy homeostasis and growth hormone secretion. We observed episodic evolution in both of their prehormone gene sequences during primitive placental mammal evolution, during which most of the nonsynonymous changes result in radical substitution. Of note, a functional obestatin hormone might have only originated after this episodic evolution event. Early in placental mammal evolution, a series of biology complexities evolved. At the same time the motilin and ghrelin prehormone genes, which play important roles in several of these processes, experienced episodic evolution with dramatic changes in their coding sequences. These observations suggest that some of the lineage-specific physiological adaptations are due to episodic evolution of the motilin and ghrelin genes.
Role of Gut Hormones in Acutely Ill Patients
M Nematy,JE O’Flynn,AE Brynes,S Brett
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2005,
Abstract: The nutritional status in patients in ITU appears to decline not only during their stay in ITU but long after discharge from ITU. The deterioration in nutritional status during and after ITU management is not fully understood. Re-establishing normal spontaneous feeding after critical illness is a vital component in the recuperative process. Gut released peptides, such as ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) that regulate the initiation and termination of meals (Cummings et al. 2002, Batterham et al. 2002), could play a role in the altered eating behaviour patients. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of ghrelin and PYY during the stay of ITU patients in hospital. 16 patients aged 60± 4.7yrs, BMI 28.1± 1.7kg/m2 (mean± SEM) admitted to ITU underwent fasting blood sample collections every second day throughout the first week on ITU and once a week thereafter until day 28 or discharge home. Changes in appetite, biochemical and anthropometric markers of nutritional status were recorded. Three fasting blood samples at least three days apart were collected from the 36 matched age and BMI healthy volunteers 54.3±2.9yrs, p=0.3 BMI 25.8±0.8kg/m2 P=0.2. As compared with healthy subjects, ITU patients exhibited a significantly lower level of ghrelin (day one 297±76.3 v. 919.8±88.3 pmol/l P0.05). Column chromatography showed the ghrelin and PYY in the right place as standard and confirmed endogenous ghrelin/PYY like immumoreactivity. Our observations suggest that Ghrelin may be one mechanism involved in appetite regulation and PYY might be one mechanism involved in inhibiting appetite in these sick patients.
Plasma ghrelin concentration in celiac patients
Rados?aw Kempiński,Marek Demissie,Maria Jasińska,Leszek Paradowski
Polish Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction: Ghrelin isthe endogenousgut hormone, first isolated from stomach, and laterfound in varioustissues as: small bowel, kidney, pancreas. It has been recently found to act as growth hormone (GH) releaser, playing significant role in food intake and energy metabolism regulation. The role of the hormone in malabsorption syndromes is still not clear. Aim of the study was the evaluate the ghrelin plasma concentrations in adults suffering from celiac disease (CD) and comparing it to controls. Material and methods: Fasting ghrelin plasma concentrations were measured using enzyme immunoassay in 20 consecutive patients with active celiac disease and 18 healthy controls. Results: Fasting ghrelin concentrations were high in patients with active CD compared to controls (53.78 ng/mL vs. 10.25 ng/mL; p〈0.05).
Gastric Histopathological Findings and Ghrelin Expression in Morbid Obesity
Türk Patoloji Dergisi , 2013,
Abstract: Objective: The role of Ghrelin, also known as the appetite hormone, is not fully explained in the development of morbid obesity. Plasma Ghrelin level is low in obese and high in slim subjects. Ghrelin-expressing cells were investigated histopathologically in the stomach of morbid obese patients in this study. Tissue Ghrelin expression was also compared with various parameters such as the distribution of endocrine cells, age, gender, body mass index, preoperative plasma Ghrelin level and presence of accompanying diseases.Material and Method: The study included 33 morbidly obese patients, and 8 non-obese control patients. Plasma Ghrelin levels were measured preoperatively. Sleeve gastrectomy resection materials of 33 cases were evaluated with histopathological and immunohistochemical (Ghrelin and Chromogranin-A) techniques. The results were statistically evaluated by nonparametric tests.Results: Histopathological findings observed in sleeve gastrectomy resection materials were interstitial lymphocytic infiltration (63.6%), hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles in the lamina propria (60.7%) and microvesiculation / dilatation of parietal cells (57.6%). The number of Ghrelin immunopositive cells in the gastric mucosa in females was significantly higher compared to males (p=0,007). Additionally, the number of Ghrelin immunopositive cells was significantly higher at the fundus-proximal corpus compared to the distal corpus of the stomach (p=0.0001). No significant correlation was found between Ghrelin-chromogranin immunopositive endocrine cell distribution and preoperative plasma Ghrelin levels and endocrine cell hyperplasia.Conclusion: Our study confirms that Ghrelin producing cells are most dense in the proximal stomach. Increased number of Ghrelin expressing cells in the gastric mucosa in females compared to males suggests that gender may also be a factor in determining the method for treatment of morbid obesity.
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