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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2664 matches for " gel "
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Effect of Bacteria Exopolysaccharide on Milk Gel Formation  [PDF]
Ratmawati Malaka, Sudirman Baco, Tomio Ohashi
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2013.34B004

The main objective of this study was to determine effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) from bacteria on formation of milk gel. Milk gel was made from 10%, 15% and 20% Reconstituted Skim Milk (RSM). EPS at different concentrations (0%, 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% according to our previous study) were added to RSM, heated at 60°C for 30 minute and 85°C for 30 second and cooled to 5°C before viscosity and pH were examined using viscometer and pH-meter. Viscosity was dependent on the concentrations of skim milk, increasing as the concentration of RSM increased. Lower concentration of EPS, viscosity showed a slight increase, but at 0.4% EPS, viscosity of milk gel increased rapidly and continued to increase up to 1%. Microstructure was determined using scanning electron microscope to evaluated milk gel formation. Interaction between milk protein and EPS was showed as network aggregate one and another. EPS function as binding agent between one molecule of casein and another. These results indicated that EPS could use to increase quality of milk gel.

Synthesis and Characterization of Struvite-k Crystals by Agar Gel  [PDF]
Vilas Bhagawat Suryawanshi, Ravindranath Teniram Chaudhari
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology (JCPT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2014.44026
Abstract: The phosphate mineral struvite is basically formed in urinary tracks and kidney. One of the analogous compounds of struvite is potassium magnesium phosphate hexahydrate (KMgPO4·6H2O), known as struvite-k crystal and found in animal urinary calculi. In the present investigation, struvite-k crystals were grown by single diffusion and double diffusion techniques in agar gelmedium. The grown crystals were analyzed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Optical microscopy and SEM exhibited the different morphologies. The FTIR spectra revealed the presence of water molecules, stretching and bending vibrations of phosphate (PO4) ions. However the powder XRD results from the crystalline nature. Elemental composition in the crystal was obtained by EDXA, while 36.89% weight loss of water molecules is observed in TGA study.
Performance Evaluation of Single Bed Desiccant Desorption Process  [PDF]
Yasser A. F. El-Samadony, Ahmed M. Hamed, Abd Elnaby Kabeel
Natural Resources (NR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2013.41008

In the present study, dynamic performance of single bed desiccant regeneration system has been investigated experimentally. The desiccant bed operates as an adsorber and then as a regenerator, intermittently. In the experimental work of this investigation, Silica gel is used as a desiccant material. In the regeneration process, hot air from an air heater is blown through the bed using an air blower. The performance of desorption process at different conditions of flowing air is demonstrated. The experimental tests were carried out at different conditions of inlet air and initial bed parameters. Temperature and humidity of air at inlet and exit of the bed were measured. The obtained results showed that hot air with an inlet temperature ranging from 40°C to 75°C could release a notable amount of water from the desiccant bed. The relation between the studied parameters during the desorption processes is correlated. Results also show that the “Rehabilitation period” in desorption process should be eliminated to decrease the desorption time and it could be eliminated if the hot air mass flow rate is greater than 1.92 kg/hr per kg of silica gel.

Synthesis and Characterization of Triply Doped Nano-Composite Alumina-Phospho- Silicates SiO2-P2O5-Al2O3 with Er3+, Sm3+ and Yb3+ Ions Prepared by Sol Gel Technique in Two Different Forms Thin Film and Monolith  [PDF]
I. K. Battisha, M. A. Salem, Y. Badr, M. Kamal, A. M. S. El Nahrawy
New Journal of Glass and Ceramics (NJGC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/njgc.2016.61001
Abstract: Nano-composite monolith and thin film Alumina-Phospho-Silicates (SiO2-P2O5-Al2O3):Ln (Ln = Sm, Er, Yb) glasses activated by triply doped with three different rare earth ions (REIs) (Er3+:Yb3+:Sm3+) were prepared by modified sol-gel process. The composition of the prepared samples was as follow (SiO2:11P2O5:3Al2O3:1.2Er2O3:(1.2 - 3)Yb2O3:(0.7 - 1.3)Sm2O3). Tetra-ethyl-orthosilicate (TEOS), tri-ethyl-phosphate (TEP), erbium nitrate, ytterbium nitrate and samarium nitrate were used as precursor materials, respectively. The structure of the prepared samples was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), which revealed that the crystallite sizes of monolith and thin film samples both sintered at 900℃?at constant Sm3+ concentration at 1.3 mol% (SPAE1.2Y1.8S1.3) have the following values 44 and 31 nm, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) of the same prepared samples was used to confirm the presence of nano-structure phase. The photo-luminescence study will be evaluated for the prepared.

Il Gel Piastrinico in chirurgia orale
Sacchi M.C.
Working Paper of Public Health , 2012,
Abstract: Obiettivi: L’utilizzo topico di emocomponenti autologhi, il concentrato piastrinico (CP) ed il plasma povero di piastrine, rappresenta una delle strategie più innovative per modulare ed amplificare i processi di guarigione e di rigenerazione tessutale. Con questo studio si è dimostrato che l’applicazione del gel piastrinico, quando viene applicato in chirurgia orale ed in particolare nell’implantologia, è in grado di migliorare ed accelerare i processi osteogenetici;Metodologia: il CP, preparato a partire da un prelievo contenuto di sangue venoso (30-60 ml), viene attivato mediante una miscela di calcio gluconato e batroxobina (un enzima similtrombinico). Nell’arco di 3-5 minuti si ottiene un bioprodotto pronto per rilasciare in situ, verosimilmente, quei GFs fondamentali per la guarigione e la rigenerazione dei tessuti circostanti.;Conclusioni: il gel piastrinico, una biotecnologia efficace, semplice e dai costi contenuti, offre ai clinici l’opportunità di poter disporre di uno strumento innovativo atto a ridurre i tempi di guarigione e le complicanze post-operative, migliorando notevolmente la qualità di vita dei pazienti;
Design of Autonomous Gel Actuators
Shingo Maeda,Yusuke Hara,Satoshi Nakamaru,Shuji Hashimoto
Polymers , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/polym3010299
Abstract: In this paper, we introduce autonomous gel actuators driven by chemical energy. The polymer gels prepared here have cyclic chemical reaction networks. With a cyclic reaction, the polymer gels generate periodical motion. The periodic motion of the gel is produced by the chemical energy of the oscillatory Belouzov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction. We have succeeded in making synthetic polymer gel move autonomously like a living organism. This experimental fact represents the great possibility of the chemical robot.
Comparison of the Use of Prilocaine and Lidocaine Gel During The Cystoscopy
?lhan Ge?it,Erdal Benli,?brahim Kele?,Necip Pirin??i
Journal of Clinical and Analytical Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.4328
Abstract: Aim: In this study, the difference of the activity between the prilocaine and lidocaine gel instillation into the urethra was investigated in order to reduce the patient’s pain and to increase the comfort of the procedure during the cystoscopy which was commonly used in the practice of urology. Material and Method: 134 patients who were decided to be performed the cystoscopy for various reasons between the years of 2008 and 2011 were randomly divided into two groups2% of lidocaine gel to the first group and 20 cc of 2% of prilocaine to the second group were given from the urethral route 5 minutes before the cystoscopy. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used in the assessment of the pain levels of the patients during the cystoscopy. The discomforts of the patients during the process were assessed with the question like “would you have the process done again if necessary”. In patients in both groups, the levels of the pain and the hemodynamic changes were recorded at the beginning of the procedure, during the procedure and after the procedure.Results: There was no significant difference in terms of the hemodynamic changes between the two groups. If it is necessary to repeat the cystoscopy, while the average score of VAS for prilocaine was 3.8 and the rate of the performance was 80%, these values for lidocaine were about 5 and 70% respectively. Cystoscopy was viewed as more comfortable both for the doctor and for the patient in the group used prilocaine. It was understood that the majority of the patients would be able to perform the cystoscopy again if necessary. Discussion: Reducing the sense of the pain in the urethra, urethral instillation of the prilocaine has provided less pain during the rigid cystoscopy especially for the outpatients and has prevented the formation of the bad memories about the process. Prilocaine has drawn its score of VAS down 1.2 points compared to lidocaine and has increased the rate of doing cystoscopy again of patient by 10% when required.
A New In-Situ Gel Formulation of Itraconazole for Vaginal Administration  [PDF]
Sinem Yaprak Karavana, Seda Ren?be, Zeynep Ay ?enyi?it, Esra Balo?lu
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2012.34056
Abstract: In this paper, mucoadhesive in-situ gel with poloxamer and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose formulations of itraconazole were prepared for vaginal application. In addition, rheological, mechanical and mucoadhesive properties and syringeability of the formulations were characterized. The mixtures of Poloxamer 407 and 188 with two different types of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose were used as polymers for gel formulations. Flow rheometry studies and oscillatory analysis of each formulation were performed at 20℃ ± 0.1℃ and 37℃ ± 0.1℃. All formulations exhibited pseudo-plastic flow and typical gel-type mechanical spectra (G′ > G″) after the determined frequency value at 37℃. Texture profile analysis presented that F3 formulation containing 20% poloxamer 407, 10% poloxamer 188 and 0.5% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose appeared to offer more suitable mechanical and mucoadhesive performance. Using different hydroxypropylmethylcellulose type in formulations didn’t significantly change syringeability values. The evaluation of the entire candidate formulations indicated that vaginal formulation of itraconazole will be an alternative for the treatment of vaginal candidiasis with suitable textural and rheological properties. Our results showed that the developed formulations were found worthy of further studies.
Comparison of the Efficacy of Foley Catheter Balloon with Dinoprostone Gel for Cervical Ripening at Term  [PDF]
Krishna Dahiya, Kanika Malik, Archit Dahiya, Smiti Nanda
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.36095
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of extra-amniotic Foley catheter with intra cervical Dinoprostone gel for preinduction cervical ripening. Study Design: A randomized, prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, PGIMS Rohtak on 100 pregnant women admitted for induction of labor. Fifty patients were randomized to receive Dinoprostone gel and 50 patients to receive intracervical, extra-amniotic Foley catheter. Results: The two groups were comparable with respect to maternal age, parity, gestational age, indication for induction, and initial Bishop scores. Both groups had a significant change in Bishop score (4.18 ± 1.81 and 4.6 ± 1.48 respectively, p < 0.001); however, there was no significant difference between the groups. Mean duration of induction to delivery was 18.51 ± 8.52 in Foley catheter group and 18.21 ± 11.13 in prostaglandin group, the difference being statistically insignificant. Among 50 cases of prostaglandin only single dose was sufficient for 23 (46%) cases to induce labor. But in 27 (54%) cases 2nd dose of prostaglandin were required. The expenditure of intervention showed that Rs. 325 were required for induction by prostaglandin as compared to Rs. 60/- for Induction by Foley’s catheter and the difference was highly significant statistically There was no difference between the groups in mode of delivery, infant weight, apgar score and intrapartum complications. Conclusion: In conclusion, although both Foley catheter and dinoprostone gel appear to be effective agents for cervical ripening. Foley catheter causes less fetal distress, cheap and safety profile of Foley catheter is such that it can be used on an out patient basis, but not dinoprostone gel. These results make Foley catheter comparable or even superior to dinoprostone gel for cervical ripening specially in developing countries.
Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Hydroxyapatite-Wollastonite Biocomposites, Produced by an Alternative Sol-Gel Route  [PDF]
Martín A. Encinas-Romero, Jesús Peralta-Haley, Jesús L. Valenzuela-García, Felipe F. Castillón-Barraza
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2013.44041

Hydroxyapatite is a type of calcium phosphate-based material with great interest for biomedical applications, due to the chemical similarity between this material and the mineral part of human bone. However, synthetic hydroxyapatite is essentially brittle; the practice indicates that the use of hydroxyapatite without additives for implant production is not efficient, due to its low strength parameters. In the present work, biocomposites of hydroxyapatite-wollastonite were synthesized by an alternative sol-gel route, using calcium nitrate and ammonium phosphate as precursors of hydroxyapatite, and high purity natural wollastonite was added in ratios of 20, 50 and 80 percent by weight immersed in aqueous medium. Formation of hydroxyapatite occurs at a relatively low temperature of about 350?C, while the wollastonite remains unreacted. After that, these biocomposites were sintered at 1200?C for 5 h to produce dense materials. The characterization techniques demonstrated the presence of hydroxyapatite and wollastonite as unique phases in all products.

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