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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 19969 matches for " gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy "
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PHOTOOXIDATION OF CRUDE PETROLEUM MALTENIC FRACTION IN NATURAL SIMULATED CONDITIONS AND STRUCTURAL ELUCIDATION OF PHOTOPRODUCTS
S. Taghvaei Ganjali , B. Nahri Niknafs, M. Khosravi
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2007,
Abstract: Photooxidation is an important process in the degradation of petroleum spilled in the marine environment. Most crude oils spilled at sea spread rapidly to form slicks with greatly increased surface area. Thus, a fundamental understanding of the effect of photooxidation on oil is a prerequisite for providing an accurate description of the recent history and potential fate of oil spilled in a marine environment. The present work describes a reliable method for evolution and studies the nature of the photoproducts and composition of the residual hydrocarbons of an oil film over the seawater. The maltenic fraction of Iranian oil was exposed to sunlight with simulated natural conditions as a film of oil over seawater. The effect of ultraviolet illumination on using a variety of techniques including GC/MS and FT-IR was examined. The saturated hydrocarbons were very resistant, but the aromatic hydrocarbons were particularly sensitive to photochemical degradation. Greater size and increasing alkyl substitution increased the sensitivity of aromatic compounds to photooxidation.
Super Antibiotics, Part II. Hyperforin, Mass Spectroscopy (MS) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Evidence of Permeability of the Blood-Testis Barrier (BTB) and the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB) to Hyperforin  [PDF]
Ilia Brondz
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography (IJAMSC) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ijamsc.2016.44007
Abstract: In the first article of this series, we presented some evidence of hyperforin as an antibiotic, antiprotozoal, antiviral, anticancer, and immunomodulatory substance. In the present article, evidence of the permeability of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) to hyperforin and its distribution in other organs of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) are revealed. Seven-month-old male boars with a body mass of 100 kg were fed a diet containing hyperforin. Organs were surgically removed under anesthesia. Organs were suitable prepared and extracted, and then analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with supersonic molecular beams (GC-MS with SMB). The presence of hyperforin was recorded in all organs and body fluids. Special attention was paid to the evaluation of the presence of hyperforin in the brain and testes of experimental animals. The presence of hyperforin in the brain and testes of experimental animals was established by GC-MS with SMB. The results are of interest because penicillin and numerous other antibiotics cannot pass through the BTB or BBB if healthy or non-inflamed, which limits their use in patients with meningitis and gonorrhea. The findings are also of interest in cases of penicillin- and multi-antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections.
Chemical compositions of the essential oil and calculation the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components of Hymenocrater longiflorus Benth. of Iran  [PDF]
Avat (Arman) Taherpour, Hossein Maroofi, Mahdi Changizi, Reza Vafaei Shoushtari, Kambiz Larijani, Azadeh Kazempour
Natural Science (NS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2011.32015
Abstract: The volatile constituents of the essential oil of Hymenocrater longiflorus Benth. growing wild in Kurdistan-Iran were investigated using the GC and GC/MS techniques. Fifteen compounds, representing twenty (97.03%) of the total oil were identified. The main components were: α- Pinene (22.47%), β-Caryophyllene (18.05%), β- Eudesmol (14.92%), α-Copaene (9.84%), γ-Elemene (6.79%), δ-Cadine-ne (6.13%), (–)Bornyl acetate (5.61%), α-Amorphene (3.84%), α-Fen- chyl acetate (2.35%) and β-Pinene (2.07%). Some of the physicochemical properties like the logarithm of calculated Octanol-Water partitioning coefficients (log Kow), total biodegradation and (TBd in mol/h and gr./h), water solubility (Sw, mg.L-1 at 25oC) and median lethal concentration 50 (LC50) were calculated for the 15 com- ponents of Hymenocrater longiflorus Benth.
Structure Elucidation of a New Toxin from the Mushroom Cortinarius rubellus Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)  [PDF]
Ilia Brondz
International Journal of Analytical Mass Spectrometry and Chromatography (IJAMSC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijamsc.2013.12014
Abstract:

Cortinarius orellanus (Fries) and C. rubellus (Cooke),which were formerly also known as C. speciosissimus, are poisonous mushrooms containing the toxin orellanine and several degradation products of orellanine,includingorelline and orellinine. Mass intoxication by poisonous mushrooms was observed in Poland in 1952-1957 [1]. In 1957, the cause of these outbreaks was described by Grzymala as poisoning by a member of the Cortinarius family. The toxin orellanine was first isolated from C. orellanusby Grzymala in 1962; the chemical structure of orellanine was later determined to be 3,3',4,4'-tetrahydroxy-2,2'-bipyridine-N,N'-dioxide. Poisoning with C. orellanus and C. rubellus has a very specific character. The first symptoms of intoxication usually do not appear until 2-3 days after ingestion, but in some cases intoxication appears after three weeks. The target organ for the toxin is the kidney. Histologically, it is easy to record the specific damage. The presence of degradation products of orellanine in kidney can be confirmed chromatographically, suggesting that the cause of poisoning is orellanine. However, the presence of orellanine in the blood of intoxicated persons has not been directly detected. A specific model was developed by Brondz et al. for the detection of orellanine, orelline, and orellininein animal stomach fluids [2-4]. The hypothesis that the fungal toxin orellanine as a diglucoside can be transported from the digestive system by the blood to the kidney could not be supported. The toxin orellanine as a diglucoside is very unstable in an aqueous acidic environment.[i1] However, in the present study, it was possible to record an additional substance in animal stomach fluids using GC-MSafter ingestion ofC. rubellus. This substance, which has been namedrubelline, is part of a toxic mixture inC. orellanusandC. rubellusand is closely related to orellanine. The structure of rubelline is more suitable than orellanine for absorptionfromthe digestive tract and for transport in the blood. The presented hypothesis is that rubellineis absorbed in the digestive tract and transportedin the blood to the kidney, where it is biotransformed to orellanine and accumulatedto toxic levels. The process of biotransformationis in itself also

Super Antibiotics, Part I. Hyperforin  [PDF]
Ilia Brondz
Voice of the Publisher (VP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/vp.2016.24004
Abstract: In this series of papers, we will present the appearance of antibiotics in general, from the original animal and microbial natural peptides and proteins, metabolites of molds and yeasts, and bacterial metabolites, to a new generation of plant-based antibiotics. The focus will be on the discovery of hyperforin and its curative properties as a new multitarget antibiotic with unique properties and possibilities for the development of a multitarget medical tool. Chromatography and mass spectrometry of hyperforin, together with its antibiotic, antiprotozoal, and anticancer activities, will be presented in this series. A description of chromatographic/mass spectrometric evidence of the passage of hyperforin through the blood-testis barrier (BTB) and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) will be provided in part II. This antibiotic is a useful tool in the struggle against Neisseria gonorrhea and Neisseria meningitides because of its free passage through the BTB and BBB and its immunomodulatory effects, together with antibacterial and detoxification effects. This paper is the first in a series that addresses the problems of using antibiotics in general and the need for the development of a new generation of antibiotics. The advantages and disadvantages of using antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine will be discussed, as will the possible associated epidemics in general and the epidemics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in particular.
Biodegradation of Crystal Violet by Agrobacterium radiobacter

G K Parshetti,S G Parshetti,A A Telke,D C Kalyani,R A Doong,P Govindwar,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2011,
Abstract:
Comparative analysis of essential oils from the leaf, fruit and stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis
Gbolade Adebayo,Tira-Picos Viana,Nogueira Joseph,Oladele Adekunle
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2009,
Abstract: A comparative analysis of hydro-distilled essential oils of the leaf, stem bark and fruit of Harungana madagascariensis was carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) for the first time. Both qualitative and quantitative differences existed in the composition of the three oils which comprised mainly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (66.8-69.6%). β-caryophyllene (32.4% and 18.4% respectively, for leaf and fruit oils only), α-humulene (10.4%, 9.8% and 7.3% respectively for leaf, stem bark and fruit oils), germacrene D (8.7% for leaf oil only), and α-farnesene (37.4% and 10.4% respectively, for stem bark and fruit oils only) were the predominant constituents.
Essential oil constituents of Illicium griffithii and its antimicrobial activity
Saraswathy A,Shakila R,Lavanya S,Arunmozhidevi A
Pharmacognosy Magazine , 2010,
Abstract: The essential oil of the fruit of Illicium griffithii Hook f. et Thoms. was extracted using Clevenger′s apparatus. Forty-one compounds were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 4-Methyl-6-(2-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole was characterized as the major constituent, followed by linalool amongst the volatile constituents. The essential oil was found to be effective against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp. and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and possessed considerable activity against Staphylococcus aureus and was inactive against Klebsiella pnemoniae, Pseudomonas aureginosae, Proteus vulgaris and Escherichia coli.
IN-SITU TRANSESTERIFICATION OF JATROPHA CURCUS LINN. FOR PREPARATION OF BIODIESEL
SANJAYKUMAR N DALVI,SARLA B. KULTHE,SWATI R. SONAWAN
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Preparation of Biodiesel the Jatropha curcas contain 27 -40% oil. Biodiesel which is fatty acid methyl ester composition.The single step reaction is eco-friendly as hexane like solvent not have been used for oil extraction. The components of situ Transesterification method is used to convert oil from seed crush Jatropha curcas into biodiesel were analysed by GC-MS technique.
Electronic Noses and Tongues: Applications for the Food and Pharmaceutical Industries
Elizabeth A. Baldwin,Jinhe Bai,Anne Plotto,Sharon Dea
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110504744
Abstract: The electronic nose (e-nose) is designed to crudely mimic the mammalian nose in that most contain sensors that non-selectively interact with odor molecules to produce some sort of signal that is then sent to a computer that uses multivariate statistics to determine patterns in the data. This pattern recognition is used to determine that one sample is similar or different from another based on headspace volatiles. There are different types of e-nose sensors including organic polymers, metal oxides, quartz crystal microbalance and even gas-chromatography (GC) or combined with mass spectroscopy (MS) can be used in a non-selective manner using chemical mass or patterns from a short GC column as an e-nose or “Z” nose. The electronic tongue reacts similarly to non-volatile compounds in a liquid. This review will concentrate on applications of e-nose and e-tongue technology for edible products and pharmaceutical uses.
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