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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4697 matches for " formation "
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A New Approach to Permian System in the Section of Gahkum Mountain (Zagros-Iran)  [PDF]
Maryam Abedini, Ali Aghanabati, Ali Meisami, Davoud Jahani
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2017.77065
The deposits of Permian system in Kuh-e-Gahkum consist of 480 m clastic subdiffusion of Faraghan Formation and carbonates of Dalan Formation. In this section, the sediments of Faraghan Formation, which is gradationally overlain by Dalan formation, unconformably overlies Zakin Formation (Lower Carboniferous). In the upper part, Kangan Formation rests on the Permian deposits with an erosional and unconformable contact. Studying the microscopic thin sections led to the identification of 37 genera and 37 species of Foraminifera as well as 14 genera and 15 species of algae. According to the identified foraminifera in Faraghan and Dalan Formations, the age of the rock units in Permian system is assigned to Julfian-Asselian.
Crime and Punishment with Habit Formation  [PDF]
Vladimir Kühl Teles, Joaquim Andrade
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13021
Abstract: Moral concepts affect crime supply. This idea is modelled assuming that illegal activities is habit forming. We introduce habits in an intertemporal general equilibrium framework to illegal activities and compare its outcomes with a model without habit formation. The findings are that habit and crime presents a non linear relationship that hinges upon the level of capital and habit formation. It is possible to show that while the effect of habit on crime is negative for low levels o habit formation it becomes positive as habits goes up. Secondly habit reduces the marginal effect of illegal activities return on crime. Finally, the effect of habit on crime depends positively on the amount of capital. This could explain the relationship between size of cities and illegal activity.
A Temporal Perspective on Learning Alliance Formation  [PDF]
Ming Piao
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.41003

When to enter the first learning alliance has strategic implications for firms’ long term success. However, research on timing of the first learning alliance is rare. As one of the few empirical studies on this issue, this paper aims to fill the gap by asking what the implications are when firms launch their first learning alliance at different points of time. Empirical results support the central proposition that if firms enter the first learning alliance too early or too late, they tend to rush into a second learning alliance in a short period of time. In the long run, they will lose the ability to innovate. Overall, this study has fundamental implications for organizational learning in particular and theory building in general.

Writing Practices as Spaces of Formation
Maria Rosa Rodrigues Martins de Camargo
Educa??o : Teoria e Prática , 2008,
Abstract: What relationships may be established between what is lived and remembered? What challenges the writing practices bring to the formation? I propose a dialogue with studies I have been advised where authors produce reflections that forward to a manner ofinterrelationship between oneself while subject of knowledge of the object researched and are revealed in the writing ruled in the changes of thinking. I ruled myself in the valorization of the narrative as a workmanship manner of communication linked to thealive substance of the existence, the experience; in the experience of literacy writing, the reason of being of the own existence; in the experience as it happens to us. To refer to the living experience it is to report the hike of the research, the construction of the object, theoretical-methodological ways, the considerations. To refer to the remembered is to pass through (dance?) of what is escaped to the formalizations, each report isunique, peculiar, a thing that penetrates, contaminates, labels, provoke an opening to whom read; are reports of the unforgotten that comes through the memory and materialize in a material fragments led by whom practice its own writing. The relationships between the experience that has lived and remembered gives clues for thinking theformation.
Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Ethane and Acetylene Formation from Electron Irradiation of Methane Ices  [PDF]
Marianna Barberio, Roberta Vasta, Pasquale Barone, Giulio Manicò, Fang Xu
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2013.31003

In this work we present an experimental and theoretical study on the formation of ethane and acetylene from solid methane condensed at 20 K and irradiated with a 500 - 3000 eV electron beam. The experiments were monitored with Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy. We observe that the electron irradiation induced a dehydrogenation of methane and a consequent formation of CHx (x = 1, 2, 3) fragments. Furthermore, in the solid during irradiation, a simple recombinetion reaction in the solid between two adjacent CHx molecules may form HC≡CH, H2C=CH2, and H3C-CH3 with a triple, double, and single carbon-carbon bond, respectively. The formed amount of ethane and acetylene increases with irradiation time and reaches a saturation value.


Influence of Supernova SN Ia Rate and the Early Star Formation Rate on the Galactic Chemical Evolution  [PDF]
Sandeep Sahijpal
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2013.33038

Based on the recently developed numerical approach to understand the formation and the chemical evolution of the milky-way galaxy in the solar neighborhood we study the influence of the supernova type SN Ia rates on the galactic chemical evolution. Supernova SN Ia plays an important role in producing the iron inventory of the galaxy. We also study the dependence of the chemical evolution on the star formation rate prevailing during the initial one billion years of the evolution of the galaxy. This era marks the formation of the galactic halo and the thick disk. A comparison of the elemental abundance distributions of the dwarf stars in the solar neighborhood is made among the various models simulated in the present work. In order to explain the majority of the observed elemental evolutionary trends, specifically those related with the galactic evolution of iron and oxygen, it would be essential to incorporate a major component of prompt SN Ia to the galactic evolution. The prompt SN Ia would produce significant fraction of SN Ia within the initial ~100 million years from the time of star formation. The essential requirement of prompt SN Ia would result in a significant enhancement of SN Ia rates during the earliest epoch of the galaxy. The elemental evolutionary trends also favor an enhancement in the star formation rate during the initial one billion years of the galaxy at least by a factor of three compared to the trend prevailing during the latter evolutionary time of the galaxy.

Export Earnings Instability and Investment in Ghana, 1981 to 2011  [PDF]
Patricia Woedem Aidam, Kwabena Asomanin Anaman
Modern Economy (ME) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/me.2014.55059

The study investigates the effect of the instability of export earnings on gross fixed capital formation (total investment) in Ghana over the period, 1981 to 2011, marked by continuous political stability. The analysis employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) method of cointegration to evaluate a set of factors, which affect investment as measured by the investment to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio. The results of the analysis confirm the expected negative relationship between export earnings instability and investment. Other factors that significantly influence investment in Ghana are real GDP growth, merchandise trade balance, real interest rate and gross domestic savings ratio. Based on the analysis, we recommend policy measures aimed at increasing the domestic savings ratio and export diversification given the re-emergence of reduced real values of Ghanaian export commodities in the world market after the high values of these commodities during the first decade of the 21st century.

Sequence Microbiostratigraphy of Jahrum and Asmari Formation in Shiraz Area, Zagros, Fars, Iran  [PDF]
Mirzaee Mahmoodabadi Reza
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2014.44009
Abstract: The study of sequence microbiostratigraphy of Jahrum and Asmari formation in Shiraz, Fars, Zagros, SW of Iran and recognition of relationship between depositional sequence parameters and microbiostratigraphy 3 stratigraphic sections (Beyza, Sarvestan A, B and Estahban sections) have been selected and studied. Jahrum and Asmari formations in study area with unconformity overlying together have been exposed. Based on Field and laboratory studies such as microfossils, microbiostratigraphy, microfaceis, sedimentary environment models and sequence stratigraphy evi- dences recognized 3 depositional sequences in study area that presented during Paleocene-Oli- gomiocene. Jahrum formation consists of one depositional sequence and Asmari formation consists of two depositional sequences. Microfossils and microbiostratigraphy studies will lead to the identification of 6 biozones in the studied area. In Beyza and Estahban sections biozones 1, 2 and 3 are related to Jahrum formation and suggest Paleocene to Middle Eocene age for this formation and biozone 4 is related to Asmari formation and suggests Oligocene age for this formation. In Sar- vestan section biozones 1, 2 and 3 are related to Jahrum formation and suggest Paleocene to Middle Eocene age for this formation and biozones 4 and 5 are related to Asmari formation and these biozones indicate Oligocene-Miocene (Aquitanian) age for Asmari formation. Sequence microbiostratigraphy studies indicate that biozones of Jahrum formation are formed in DS1 and biozones of Asmari formation are formed in DS2 and DS3. Also, some relationship between depositional sequence parameters and distribution of microfossils and biozones as in the case of in SB1 and LST facies didn’t found any microfossil and we can’t suggest biozonation. In study area upper part of HST of DS1 (Jahrum formation) and some biozones related to Upper Eocene have been eliminated, for example in Estahban, Sarvestan B and Beyza sections all biozones related to Upper Paleocene to Middle Eocene and eliminated biozones of Upper Eocene. In study area SB2 existed in lower boundary of DS1 (between Sachun and Jahrum formation) and between DS2 and DS3 of Asmari formation. Some parts of biozones in study area could correlate with SB2. For example for upper limit of biozones no 4 in Estahban section overlies to SB2 of DS2 in Asmari formation. Paleoecological situation in TST systems tract suitable for reproduction and growth large foraminifera and biozones 1, 2 and 3 are formed in systems tract. MFS and
Well Log Petrophysics of the Cretaceous Pay Zones in Zubair Field, Basrah, South Iraq  [PDF]
Abdulaziz M. Abdulaziz, Abdel Sattar A. Dahab, Mohammed Y. Najmuddin
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2017.710104
Abstract: Discovered in 1949 with a rate of (195,000) bbl/day from pay zones in Mishrif and Zubair Formation, the expected production of Zubair field is anticipated to be 1125 million bbl/day. Despite this production history, there is a major deficiency in detailed petrophysical analysis of the producing zones. In the present study well log data of 7 wells, selected from numerous wells, are investigated in details to examine the reservoir properties and characterize the reservoir architecture. The petrophysical analysis of Mishrif Formation indicated two or three pay zones. Lithologically, all zones of Mishrif Formation are dominantly clean limestone to dolomitic limestone with zone 2 and 3 reporting higher dolomitic content (20% to 40%) compared to zone 1 (6% to 13%). Mishrif pay zones indicated a relatively good porosity (18% - 24%) with zone 2 predominant in secondary porosity associating dolomitization processes. In Zubair Formation one pay zone is identified but locally could separate into two zones. The clay content is generally low with average content between 2% and 3% while the average porosity showed slightly better values in zone 1 (~0.20) compared to average porosity of zone 2 (0.17) that is rich in silt content associating deposition at a relatively deeper parts of the shelf. The average water saturation shows distinct lower values that vary between 15% and 18.7%. The petrophysical results are statistically analyzed and property histograms and crossplots are constructed to investigate mutual relationships. Such analysis is essential for understanding the reservoir architecture and calculations of reservoir capacity for future development.
Trajectory Design and Optimization for LEO Satellites in Formation to Observe GEO Satellites’ Beams  [PDF]
Yi Lu, Yu Sun, Xiyun Hou, Yunhe Meng
International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics (IJAA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijaa.2018.84026
Abstract: This paper presents the methods and results for the trajectory design and optimization for the low earth orbit (LEO) satellites in formation to observe the geostationary orbit (GEO) satellites’ beams. The background of the trajectory design mission is the 9th China Trajectory Optimization Competition (CTOC9). The formation is designed according to the observation demands. The flying sequence is determined by a reference satellite using a proposed improved ephemeris matching method (IEMM). The formation is changed, maintained and transferred following the reference satellite employing a multi-impulse control method (MICM). Then the total observation value is computed by propagating the orbits of the satellites according to the sequence and transfer strategies. Based on the above methods, we have obtained a fourth prize in the CTOC9. The proposed methods are not only fit for this competition, but can also be used to fulfill the trajectory design missions for similar multi-object explorations.
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