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When to enter the first learning
alliance has strategic implications for firms’ long term success. However, research
on timing of the first learning alliance is rare. As one of the few empirical
studies on this issue, this paper aims to fill the gap by asking what the
implications are when firms launch their first learning alliance at different
points of time. Empirical results support the central proposition that if firms
enter the first learning alliance too early or too late, they tend to rush into
a second learning alliance in a short period of time. In the long run, they
will lose the ability to innovate. Overall, this study has fundamental
implications for organizational learning in particular and theory building in
In this work we present an experimental and theoretical study on the formation of ethane and acetylene from solid methane condensed at 20 K and irradiated with a 500 - 3000 eV electron beam. The experiments were monitored with Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy. We observe that the electron irradiation induced a dehydrogenation of methane and a consequent formation of CHx (x = 1, 2, 3) fragments. Furthermore, in the solid during irradiation, a simple recombinetion reaction in the solid between two adjacent CHx molecules may form HC≡CH, H2C=CH2, and H3C-CH3 with a triple, double, and single carbon-carbon bond, respectively. The formed amount of ethane and acetylene increases with irradiation time and reaches a saturation value.
Based on the recently developed numerical approach to understand
the formation and the chemical evolution of the milky-way galaxy in the solar neighborhood
we study the influence of the supernova type SN Ia rates on the galactic chemical
evolution. Supernova SN Ia plays an important role in producing the iron inventory
of the galaxy. We also study the dependence of the chemical evolution on the star
formation rate prevailing during the initial one billion years of the evolution
of the galaxy. This era marks the formation of the galactic halo and the thick disk.
A comparison of the elemental abundance distributions of the dwarf stars in the
solar neighborhood is made among the various models simulated in the present work.
In order to explain the majority of the observed elemental evolutionary trends,
specifically those related with the galactic evolution of iron and oxygen, it would
be essential to incorporate a major component of prompt SN Ia to the galactic evolution.
The prompt SN Ia would produce significant fraction of SN Ia within the initial
~100 million years from the time of star formation. The essential requirement of
prompt SN Ia would result in a significant enhancement of SN Ia rates during the
earliest epoch of the galaxy. The elemental evolutionary trends also favor an enhancement
in the star formation rate during the initial one billion years of the galaxy at
least by a factor of three compared to the trend prevailing during the latter evolutionary
time of the galaxy.
The study investigates the effect of the instability of export earnings on gross fixed capital formation (total investment) in Ghana over the period, 1981 to 2011, marked by continuous political stability. The analysis employs the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) method of cointegration to evaluate a set of factors, which affect investment as measured by the investment to gross domestic product (GDP) ratio. The results of the analysis confirm the expected negative relationship between export earnings instability and investment. Other factors that significantly influence investment in Ghana are real GDP growth, merchandise trade balance, real interest rate and gross domestic savings ratio. Based on the analysis, we recommend policy measures aimed at increasing the domestic savings ratio and export diversification given the re-emergence of reduced real values of Ghanaian export commodities in the world market after the high values of these commodities during the first decade of the 21st century.