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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 36202 matches for " fertilizer metering system "
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Operational characteristics of four metering systems for agricultural fertilizers and amendments
Camacho-Tamayo, Jesus H.;Barbosa, Angela M.;Pérez, Nancy M.;Leiva, Fabio R.;Rodríguez, Gonzalo A.;
Engenharia Agrícola , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-69162009000400010
Abstract: the use of fertilizers and solid amendments in agriculture generates special interest for their effect on crop productivity, as well as for their environmental impact. the efficient use of these products demands knowing their physical and mechanical properties, the storing conditions effect and the operational characteristics of the metering systems used in the fertilizing equipment. in this context, the present study was developed with the purpose of evaluating the operational characteristics of different fertilizing metering systems and to determine the adequate metering system-product operational parameters, using powder lime, powder gypsum, granular 10-30-10 (n-p-k), and granular urea. operational differences were established among four types of commercial fertilizer metering systems, including wire auger, star-shaped feed wheel, feed screw and ridged traction wheel. the study found that the unloading rate depends directly on the fertilizer metering system's rotating speed and is affected by particle size, repose angle, bulk density and moisture content of the applied product. the wire auger and star-shaped feed wheel metering systems were adequate for the distribution of powder products and the feed screw for granulated fertilizers. furthermore, theoretical and experimental characteristic equations were established, defining curves for calibration and handling of the products plus the rotating speed range in which a better distributing behavior was achieved.
Automated Routing Control System of Local Area Network Segment  [PDF]
Zafer Al-Makhadmee
Communications and Network (CN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2013.53030

Automated Routing Control System supersedes the prior approach to LAN redundancy which provides two or more LANs and each has a network (LAN) controller coupled to data communication devices. Devices require some software to switch between the network (LAN) controllers to counter some network segment failures. This approach is proven to be very costly due to demands for off-the-shelf data communication devices with built-in LAN controller drivers [1]. Automated Routing Control System, is the ultimate solution to the growing demands for inexpensive (less costly) and less difficult approach which requires less modification rather than upgrade of network devices yet it minimizes data and information exchange losses and interruptions caused by connection failures within the network and lessens the task of managing a complex network having many segments rather than subnets under a centralized monitoring and management. Automated Routing Control System rather than mechanism is a realistic approach applied to meet the ever growing demands for reliability, high efficiency and availability within data and information exchange networks.

Application of smart grid in Kosovo power system
Arben Gjukaj,Raymonda Bualoti
Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business , 2011,
Abstract: The expansion of the electricity market and the reorganization of electricity companies (production, transmission, distribution, etc.) require a supervision of electricity distribution network at all voltage levels. The main goal is supplying costumers with electricity in both quality and economical manner. This encourages us to establish the Smart Grid and SCADA system, so that the existing system will be monitored from the distance in a regular time and will be operated in order to carry out optimization, automation of control, and direction of key parameters of the distribution system. Further, the large number of facilities of all voltage levels, as well as, large number of planned and unplanned occurrences causes numerous operations and changes in the configuration of network distribution. Therefore, it is very important to supervise the distribution network from distance both, in technical and economical aspect. Accordingly, the automation of the network is the topic of all distribution companies in Kosovo too.
Development of systems for detection, early warning, and control of pipeline leakage in drinking water distribution: A case study

Weifeng Li,Wencui Ling,Suoxiang Liu,Jing Zhao,Ruiping Liu,Qiuwen Chen,Zhimin Qiang,Jiuhui Qu,

环境科学学报(英文版) , 2011,
Abstract: Water leakage in drinking water distribution systems is a serious problem for many cities and a huge challenge for water utilities. An integrated system for the detection, early warning, and control of pipeline leakage has been developed and successfully used to manage the pipeline networks in selected areas of Beijing. A method based on the geographic information system has been proposed to quickly and automatically optimize the layout of the instruments which detect leaks. Methods are also proposed to estimate the probability of each pipe segment leaking (on the basis of historic leakage data), and to assist in locating the leakage points (based on leakage signals). The district metering area (DMA) strategy is used. Guidelines and a flowchart for establishing a DMA to manage the large-scale looped networks in Beijing are proposed. These different functions have been implemented into a central software system to simplify the day-to-day use of the system. In 2007 the system detected 102 non-obvious leakages (i.e., 14.2% of the total detected in Beijing) in the selected areas, which was estimated to save a total volume of 2,385,000 m3 of water. These results indicate the feasibility, efficiency and wider applicability of this system.
Some peculiarities of the human resources monitoring system development at the enterprise
Gizatulin, Artem Makhmutovych,Novikova, Olena Viktorivna
Socìal?no-ekonomì?nì Problemì ì Der?ava , 2012,
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to develop a human resources monitoring systemproviding the objective complex evaluation of the staff, minimizing the subjectivity factor on theside of the person evaluating and making decisions by methods of economic and mathematicalmodelling. The research to find the main criteria for assessing the human resources, to use somemathematical methods for the human resources monitoring, to obtain the integrated humanresources efficiency factor at the enterprise has been carried out. Some peculiarities of the humanresources monitoring system at the Ukrainian enterprises have been analysed. The main problemsand unsolved tasks concerning personnel management are discussed. The reserves for the humanresources efficient management increasing based on the human resources monitoring system arefound.
A. Dziubenko,V. Manoylo,M. Lypynskyi
Аvtomob?lnyi Transport , 2012,
Abstract: Stages of distributive gas supply system synthesis are presented. The general system structure is determined. Tasks concerning the referencing of actuators with ICE operation dynamics to the control system and matching dynamic parameters are solved.
Fertilizer Management in Hybrid Maize with Soybean Intercropping System under Irrigated Condition
Saha, R. R.,M. A. Quayyum,S. Alom,P. C. Sarker
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted to find out a suitable dose of fertilizer for hybrid maize (var. Pacific 11) intercropping with soybean (var. Sohag), two planting system and four fertilizer levels were used as treatment variables. Highest grain yield of maize was obtained from the highest dose of fertilizer. But soybean yield was the highest in lower doses of fertilizer at Jessore and Hathazari but at Joydebpur 250-120-120-40-5 N, P2O5, K2O, S, Zn Kg ha-1. Yield attributes increased with the increase of fertilizer in case of maize but reverse in soybean. From economic point of view, the highest benefit cost ratio was obtained from the fertilizer dose 250- 120- 120- 40- 5 of N, P2O5, K2O, S, Zn Kg ha-1 in both normal and paired row systems at Joydebpur of Bangladesh. But at Jessore and Hathazari fertilizer dose 200-80- 80- 20- 5 of N, P2O5, K2O, S, Zn Kg ha-1 was found profitable
Analysis of Chemical and Biological Soil Properties in Organically and Conventionally Fertilized Apple Orchards  [PDF]
Takamitsu Kai, Masaki Mukai, Kiwako S. Araki, Dinesh Adhikari, Motoki Kubo
Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment (JACEN) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jacen.2016.52010
Abstract: We compared chemical and biological properties of soils in organically and conventionally fertilized apple orchards in Nagano Prefecture (one of the major apple producing regions in Japan). Five apple orchards with different fertilizer management systems were used for this study. The total carbon and total nitrogen contents were higher in the organically fertilized orchard, while the total phosphorus and total potassium were at similar levels in both organically and conventionally fertilized orchards. The bacterial biomass did not differ between the two orchards, but the N circulation activity was clearly higher in the organically fertilized orchard from April to December. Total carbon from 50,000 to 60,000 mg/kg, total nitrogen at about 3000 to 4000 mg/kg, and a C/N ratio of 15 - 20 were suggested to be suitable conditions for a high level of apple production under an organic fertilizer management system.
An Ad-Hoc Low Cost Wireless Sensor Network for Smart Gas Metering  [PDF]
Oscar Rorato, Silvano Bertoldo, Claudio Lucianaz, Marco Allegretti, Riccardo Notarpietro
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/wsn.2013.53008

The monitoring of power consumption has become of a great interest in recent years as well as the innovative technologies available to realize Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have experienced a great growth. While smart metering technologies for electric energy are already established, as sensors power supply comes directly from power lines, WSN nodes for gas metering should necessarily be equipped with long life batteries. The presented work describes a new prototypal low cost WSN designed ad hoc for gas smart metering. The network has a star topology: each sensor node can be completely integrated with standard reed relay gas meter, and it is capable to measure the gas consumption. The information is sent to the central node (the Access Point, AP) through an RF links. The sensor nodes have been designed with custom electronics and a proprietary firmware, in order to work with a common 3.6 V lithium battery which is able to ensure a life period of about 10 years for each node. Only the AP must be connected directly to electric power. The AP is connected through the RS-232 interface to a control embedded PC equipped with a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) framework: it stores all the information coming from each node in a coherent database and allows authorized users to check the network status using a web interface. The WSN is self-learning and it is capable to detect new nodes joining the network without altering the normal operative flow. Moreover e-mail and SMS alerts can be activated to alert if a node is disconnected from the network or some problems occur. A first prototype of the WSN has been already tested achieving good results.

Comparing Pre-Paid Communal Water Metering and Delegated Management in Urban Poor Setting: Case Studies in Nakuru and Kisumu in Kenya  [PDF]
Robert Hanjahanja, Christian Omuto, Elijah Biamah
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.64026
Water service providers face multiple challenges in their service provision. These challenges include high non-revenue water, low water coverage, many incidences of waterborne diseases, and high water bills, etc. This study set to assess how changes in water metering strategies can overcome these challenges. The study analyzed three water metering technologies for their suitability to improve service provision. The strategies were: conventional water metering where meter-readers collect readings for post-billing; community prepaid metering (CPM) where meters are preloaded with tokens; and delegated meter management (DMM) where service provision and billing is delegated to master operators. CPM and DMM were installed in an existing conventional network and data on commonly-used performance evaluation parameters collected through interviews, field-visits, and existing literature. The results portrayed CPM and DMM with positive improvements to the conventional metering. CPM had over 70% improvements in unit cost of water and time for water access. DMM had over 90% improvements in water coverage and non-revenue water. In general, the study found CPM with positive impacts on the cost of water, potable water, and time to fetching water while DMM had positive impacts on water coverage and non-revenue water. It’s recommended that the CPM and DMM models used in this study be cross-tested and more individual strengths be drawn.
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