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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14783 matches for " energy barrier "
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Investigation of Polyaniline Thin Film and Schottky Junction with Aluminium for Electrical and Optical Characterization  [PDF]
Pronob Jyoti Saikia, Pratap Chandra Sarmah
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.28138
Abstract: Polyaniline Powdered sample was chemically synthesized using aniline and doped with HCl. Ultra thin film and Schottky junction with Al metal have been fabricated from this powdered sample Ultrathin film of polyaniline shows amorphous nature of the film. Two activation energies of these films at two different temperatures regions within 25-120oC have been observed. Schottky Junction with Al meal shows that the diode ideality factor is much higher than unity. Barrier height of this Schottky junction is estimated to be around 0.61eV. C-V plot of the junction indicates that the carrier concentration is about 1015cm-3. There are various factors found to affect the junction to deviate from ideal Schottky behaviour.
New Exotic Models of Cold Nuclear Reactions and the Creation of the World  [PDF]
Andrey B. Simakov
Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jhepgc.2018.43028
Abstract: The work has the characters of a philosophical note, in which a new exotic version of the atom structure is discussed. According to this, the atomic nucleus consists of “normal” and “special” neutrons. Electrons are internal part of both types of neutron. Electrons can leave “normal” neutrons of the nucleus and return back with a certain probability. These processes lead to the appearance of protons in the nucleus and form the electron orbits of the atom. At the same time, it is possible that the Coulomb’s barriers of atoms and nucleus disappear at some point in time and cold nuclear reactions pass through. This assumption leads to a new exotic model of the Universe structure, namely, the existence of neutron ether, consisting of special neutrons that do not emit their own electrons. In this ethereal ocean of special neutrons, periodically provoked disturbances arise. After that, it creates pockets, clusters of our normal neutrons inherent in our world, which can already emit electrons and, consequently, create atoms. The ether gets sick from time to time. However, as a result of this disease, stars arise. Some possible stages in the creation of our world are also discussed in this paper.
Theoretical Study of Multidimensional Proton Tunnelling in Benzoic Acid Dimer
Marek J. Wójcik,Krzysztof Szczeponek,Marek Boczar
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2003, DOI: 10.3390/i4070422
Abstract: Ab initio B3LYP/6-311++G** calculations have been carried out for the benzoic acid dimer for the stable and saddle point structures. The energy barrier for the proton tunneling amounts to 6.5 kcal/mol. The normal mode frequencies have been computed including modes coupled to the proton tunneling mode. Two-dimensional model potentials, formed from symmetric mode coupling potential and squeezed double well potential, have been fitted to the calculated energy barrier, geometries and frequencies, and used to analyze proton dynamics. The calculated proton tunneling energy splitting in the vibrationally ground states of the low-frequency modes is ~230 cm-1. The two-dimensional model PES predict monotonic increase of the tunneling splitting with the excitation of the planar modes. Depending of the sign of the coupling parameter out-of-plane modes can either suppress or promote the splittings.
Non Equilibrium Plasma Assisted Conversion of Fossil Fuels without CO2 Release  [PDF]
Fela Odeyemi, Mikhail Pekker, Alexander Rabinovich, Alexander Fridman
Green and Sustainable Chemistry (GSC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/gsc.2012.22007
Abstract: A new method of extracting the chemical energy from hydrocarbon fuels without the release of carbon dioxide is demonstrated. This novel approach has been made possible with non- equilibrium plasma. In addition to CO2 and CO, there is a lesser known carbon oxide called carbon suboxide which can be polymerized to form thermodynamically stable substances. A process of converting hydrocarbon fuels to hydrogen and carbon suboxide without the release of carbon dioxide using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is described in detail. Thermodynamic calculations show energy of up to 78% for the production of hydrogen and carbon suboxide. Results from the analyses of the condensed by-products of the hydrocarbon conversion process are also discussed.
A Quest for the Origin of Barrier to the Internal Rotation ofHydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Fluorine Peroxide (F2O2)
Dulal C. Ghosh
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2006, DOI: 10.3390/i7080289
Abstract: In order to understand the structure-property relationship, SPR, an energy-partitioning quest for the origin of the barrier to the internal rotation of two iso-structuralmolecules, hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, and fluorine peroxide, F2O2 is performed. Thehydrogen peroxide is an important bio-oxidative compound generated in the body cells tofight infections and is an essential ingredient of our immune system. The fluorine peroxideis its analogue. We have tried to discern the interactions and energetic effects that entail thenonplanar skew conformation as the equilibrium shape of the molecules. The physicalprocess of the dynamics of internal rotation initiates the isomerization reaction and generatesinfinite number of conformations. The decomposed energy components faithfully display thephysical process of skewing and eclipsing as a function of torsional angles and hence aregood descriptors of the process of isomerization reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) anddioxygen difluoride (F2O2) associated with the dynamics of internal rotation. It is observedthat the one-center, two-center bonded and nonbonded interaction terms are sharply dividedin two groups. One group of interactions hinders the skewing and favours planar cis/transforms while the other group favours skewing and prefers the gauche conformation of themolecule. The principal energetic effect forcing the molecules into the nonplanar gaucheform is the variation “O–O’ bond energy with torsion in both the molecules. It isdemonstrated that the barrier is not a regional effect rather it is made by the conjoint actionof all one- and two-center bonding and nonbonding interactions comprising the entireframework of the molecule. The present study claims to reveal one amazing feature of non-bonded interactions. Computed results of nonbonding interactions demonstrate that thenature of interaction between two formally positively charged non-bonding H atoms (Hδ+ ----Hδ+ ) is not always repulsive and it is attractive as well; the nature of the non-bondinginteraction between formally negatively charged atom (‘O’) and formally positively charged(‘H’) atom, (Oδ?----Hδ+ ), is not always attractive but repulsive too; it is also demonstrated that the nature of the nonbonding interaction between strongly electronegative atoms, ( Fδ?-- --Fδ?), is not always repulsive and it may be attractive as well.

Fang Yun-tuan,Luo Cheng-lin,

中国物理 B , 2000,
Abstract: We report the tight-binding molecular dynamics simulations of C60 impacting on a graphite (0001) surface with different incident energy. The simulations provide detailed characterizations of the microscopic processes occurring during the collisions and show insight into the deposition mechanisms of C60 on semiconductor substrate.
Influence of Ga+ ion irradiation on thermal relaxation of exchange bias field in exchange-coupled CoFe/IrMn bilayers

Qi Xian-Jin,Wang Yin-Gang,Miao Xue-Fei,Li Zi-Quan,Huang Yi-Zhong,

中国物理 B , 2011,
Abstract: This paper reports that the CoFe/IrMn bilayers are deposited by magnetron sputtering on the surfaces of thermally-oxidized Si substrates. It investigates the thermal relaxations of both non-irradiated and Ga+ ion irradiated CoFe/IrMn bilayers by means of holding the bilayers in a negative saturation field. The results show that exchange bias field decreases with the increase of holding time period for both non-irradiated and Ga+ ion irradiated CoFe/IrMn bilayers. Exchange bias field is also found to be smaller upon irradiation at higher ion dose. This reduction of exchange bias field is attributed to the change of energy barrier induced by ion-radiation.
Thermal relaxation of exchange bias field in an exchange coupled CoFe/IrMn bilayer

Qi Xian-Jin,WangYin-Gang,Zhou Guang-Hong,Li Zi-Quan,Guo Min,

中国物理 B , 2010,
Abstract: This paper reports that a CoFe/IrMn bilayer was deposited by high vacuum magnetron sputtering on silicon wafer substrate; the thermal relaxation of the CoFe/IrMn bilayer is investigated by means of holding the film in a negative saturation field at various temperatures. The exchange bias decreases with increasing period of time while holding the film in a negative saturation field at a given temperature. Increasing the temperature accelerates the decrease of exchange field. The results can be explained by the quantitative model of the nucleation and growth of antiferromagnetic domains suggested by Xi H W et al. 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 014434], and it is believed that two energy barriers exist in the investigated temperature range.
Dynamics of Bose–Einstein condensate in a harmonic potential and a Gaussian energy barrier
中国物理 B , 2011,
Abstract: We have studied the dynamics of Bose–Einstein condensate by solving numerically the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. We examined the periodic behaviour of the condensate in a shifted harmonic potential, and further demonstrated the tunneling effect of a condensate through a Gaussian energy barrier, which is inserted after the condensate has been excited by shifting the harmonic trapping potential to a side. Moreover, it is shown that the initial condensate evolves dynamically into two separate moving condensates after the tunneling time under certain conditions.
Potential energy surfaces of ozone in the ground state
Shao Ju-Xiang,Zhu Zheng-He,Huang Duo-Hui,Wang Jun,Cheng Xin-Lu,Yang Xiang-Dong,
,朱正和,黄多辉,王 君,程新路,杨向东

中国物理 B , 2007,
Abstract: Equilibrium parameters of ozone, such as equilibrium geometry structure parameters, force constants and dissociation energy are presented by CBS-Q {\it ab initio} calculations. The calculated equilibrium geometry structure parameters and energy are in agreement with the corresponding experimental values. The potential energy function of ozone with a C$_{\rm 2v}$ symmetry in the ground state is described by the simplified Sorbie--Murrell many-body expansion potential function according to the ozone molecule symmetry. The contour of bond stretching vibration potential of an O$_{3}$ in the ground state, with a bond angle ($\theta )$ fixed, and the contour of O$_{3}$ potential for O rotating around O$_{1}$--O ($R_{1})$, with O$_{1}$--O bond length taken as the one at equilibrium, are plotted. Moreover, the potentials are analysed.
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