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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 13795 matches for " endothelial function "
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Función de los inhibidores de la Hidroxi-Metilglutaril Coenzima a Reductasa en la enfermedad Cardiovascular
Arab,G; Avilé,J; Rivera,M; Sánchez,N; de la Parte-Pérez,MA; Contreras,F; Collazo,M;
Archivos Venezolanos de Farmacología y Terapéutica , 2003,
Abstract: abstract we are including revision on atherosclerosis, the different types of tisular changes described in this pathology, the theories that could explain its physiopathology, the risk factors and its complications. the cholesterol metabolism and transport is described and the findings of several studies demonstrating cholesterol and triglyceride high serum levels as risk factors for atherosclerosis and coronary events. description is made of the endothelial dysfunction and its relation with early cardiovascular events. the action and use of statins (competitive inhibitors of the action of the hepatic enzyme hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme a reductase -hmg coa reductase-, stopping the conversion of hmgcoa to mevalonic acid, the principal precursor of endogenous cholesterol) in the prevention of cardiovascular events. how statins have actions in the production of nitric oxide, interaction white blood cell and the endothelium, antioxidant, antithrombotic and cytoprotective actions. there are also included other effects described for these drugs and the benefits when administered for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
Comparison between Fenugreek and Lovastatin in restoration of endothelial function in an experimental old rat model
"Pipelzadeh MH,Dezfulian A,Koochek MH,Moradi M "
Acta Medica Iranica , 2003,
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) with that of lovastatin in restoration of endothelia function in the aorta taken form aged N-Mair rats. For this purpose, 4 groups of old N-Mari rats were used (n=6), normal saline treated control group, lovastatin (10 mg/kg, orally) and fengreek seed powder in normal saline suspension (100 or 500 mg/kg) were administered orally daily for 8 weeks. The rate of relaxation of ephedrine- precontracted aorta to acetycholine, the lipid profiles, and histological examinations of the aorta were compared between these two groups and with a control non-treated normal saline treated group. The results showed that treatment with lovastatin and fenugreek produced significant reduction in IDL, VLDL triglyceride and total cholesterol, while HDL was increased as compared to control non-treated group. Lovastatin induced an increase in contraction/mg tissue weight. However, improvement in endothelial function was significantly increased in all treatment groups. The histological findings showed significant reduction in thickness and lipid deposits in the aorta in all treatment groups. The improvement in the epithelial function was correlated with LDL-cholesterol lowering and partly with the reduction in the thickness of the aortic intimal layer. This study demonstrated that fenugreek is as effective as lovastatin in reducing the features associated with atherosclerosis.
Endothelial function and dysfunction: clinical significance and assessment
Shaghayegh Haghjooyejavanmard,Mehdi Nematbakhsh
Journal of Research in Medical Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Over the past two decades, investigators have increasingly recognized the importance of the endothelium as a centralregulator of vascular and body homeostasis. The endothelial lining represents an organ of 1.5 kg in an adult, which is distributed throughout the body. The endothelium is versatile and multifunctional. In addition to its role as a selective permeability barrier, it has many synthetic and metabolic properties, including modulation of vascular tone and blood flow, regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, and regulation of coagulation, fibrinolysis and thrombosis. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is a frequently used term, which can be referred to abnormalities in various physiological functions of the endothelium, and it is known as a key variable in the pathogenesis of several diseases and their complications. Finding suitable markers for endothelial damage or ED is certainly of interest. Established and emerging techniques to detect ED are divided into three large families of functional, cellular, and biochemical markers. Instead of performing single assessments, it may be much more valuable to determine various biological aspects of endothelium. It seems that there is likely a spectrum between normality, endothelial activation (by inflammatory cytokines), endothelial dysfunction (e.g., impairment of nitric oxide, resulting in loss of regulation of vascular tone) and endothelial damage (e.g., atherosclerosis). In this review we review the importance of endothelium and its activation, biomarkers and dysfunction. KEYWORDS: Endothelial function, endothelium, Disease.
Long-term administration of traditional kampo medicine shimotsuto, juzentaihoto and unseiin inhibits experimental thrombosis in mice  [PDF]
Yoshinobu Ijiri, Hiroko Anzai, Weifua Gao, Kunio Takahashi, Naemi Kajiwara, Masahiro Murakami, Junichiro Yamamoto
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.25073
Abstract: Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (Kampo) are used to improve flow characteristics of blood (Oketsu). We assumed that by preventing stagnation of blood, these medicines may be beneficial not only in venous but in arterial thrombotic conditions. The present study aimed to assess the antithrombotic effect of three Kampo, using well-established in vitro and animal models of thrombosis. Western-style highfat diet containing 1% Kampo (Shimotsuto, Juzentaihoto or Unseiin) was administered to C57BL/6 mice for 12 weeks. The effect on thrombus formation by laser irradiation of the carotid artery of mice was assessed. In addition the ex-vivo technique of shear-induced platelet reactivity measurement (haemostatometry) and the in vivo test of endothelial function (flowmediated vasodilation) were also used to assess the mechanism of antithrombotic effect. All three medicines have significantly inhibited arterial thrombus formation in mice. According to our studies, the mechanism of antithrombotic effect is based on the inhibition of shear-induced platelet reac- tivity and stimulation of endothelial function (Unseiin). It is assumed that the common ingredients Japanese Angelica Root, Cnidium Rhizome, Peony Root and Rehmannia Root could be responsible for the observed antithrombotic effect.
Función endotelial
Verdejo París, Juan;
Archivos de cardiología de México , 2006,
Abstract: the endothelium is the first line of tissue whose function is affected by the cardiovascular risk factors. the normal function of this vascular covering maintains the homeostasis of the vascular bed and its alterations favors the appearance of the initial lesions of various diseases including the atherosclerotic process. the endothelial function can be measured by means of non invasive methods and these measures can identify the people at higher risk to develop atherosclerosis and its complications and also the methodology has proven to be useful in the evaluation of the outcomes related to the therapeutic measures. the possibility of performing this methods in a safe, non invasive and reproducible way permits that the endothelial function could be used as screening tool for cardiovascular risk in open population.
Evaluation of coronary microvascular function in patients with vasospastic angina
Hiroki Teragawa,Naoya Mitsuba,Ken Ishibashi,Kenji Nishioka
World Journal of Cardiology , 2013, DOI: 10.4330/wjc.v5.i1.1
Abstract: AIM: To investigate endothelium-dependent and -independent coronary microvascular functions in patients with vasospastic angina (VSA). METHODS: Thirty-six patients with VSA (30 men and 6 women; mean age, 58 years) were enrolled in this study. VSA was defined as ≥ 90% narrowing of the epicardial coronary arteries on angiography performed during a spasm provocation test, presence of chest pain, and/or ST-segment deviation on an electrocardiogram (ECG). Patients (n = 36) with negative spasm provocation test results and those matched for age and sex were enrolled as a control group (nonVSA group). Low-dose acetylcholine (ACh; 3 μg/min) was infused into the left coronary ostium for 2 min during the spasm provocation test. Following the spasm provocation test, nitroglycerin (0.2 mg) was administered intracoronally. Coronary blood flow (was calculated from quantitative angiography and Doppler flow velocity measurements, and the coronary flow reserve was calculated as the ratio of coronary flow velocity after injection of adenosine triphosphate (20 μg) to the baseline value. Changes in the coronary artery diameter in response to ACh and nitroglycerin infusion were expressed as percentage changes from baseline measurements. RESULTS: Body mass index was significantly lower in the VSA group than in the nonVSA group. The frequency of conventional coronary risk factors and the rate of statin use were similar between the 2 groups. The left ventricular ejection fraction as evaluated by echocardiography was similar between the 2 groups. The duration of angina was 9 ± 2 mo. The results of blood chemistry analysis were similar between the 2 groups. Low-dose ACh did not cause coronary spasms. The change in coronary artery diameter in response to ACh was lower in the VSA group (-1.4% ± 9.3%) than in the nonVSA group (3.1% ± 6.5%, P < 0.05), whereas nitroglycerin-induced coronary artery dilatation and coronary blood flow increase in response to ACh or coronary flow reserve did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that microvascular coronary function may be preserved despite endothelial dysfunction of the epicardial coronary arteries in patients with VSA.
Acute Effects of Polyphenols from Cranberries and Grape Seeds on Endothelial Function and Performance in Elite Athletes
Kim Labonté,Charles Couillard,Annie Motard-Bélanger,Marie-Eve Paradis,Patrick Couture,Beno?t Lamarche
Sports , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/sports1030055
Abstract: We examined how intake of polyphenols modifies brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at rest, and cycling anaerobic performance, in elite athletes. In the first randomized cross-over study, FMD was measured over a three-hour period on two occasions in eight elite male and female athletes after acute consumption of either polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds (600 mg) or a polyphenol-free placebo drink. Consumption of the polyphenol-rich drink led to a significant increase in FMD compared to placebo ( p = 0.02), with a peak at 60 min. In a second study, 12 elite male and female athletes completed a three-kilometer time trial (TT) on an ergocycle on two occasions in random order, either after consumption of 800 mg of polyphenols or a placebo. Acute intake of the polyphenol extract had no impact on the three-kilometer time trial completion. However, plasma lactate levels were significantly lower before and after the TT when subjects consumed the polyphenols vs. placebo ( p < 0.05). Results suggest that polyphenols from cranberries and grape seeds acutely modifies FMD at rest in elite athletes but this does not translate into enhanced cycling anaerobic performance.
Sitagliptin improves vascular endothelial function in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients without cardiovascular disease  [PDF]
Kazunari Suzuki, Kentaro Watanabe, Tatsuya Suzuki, Motoshi Ouchi, Shoko Futami-Suda, Yoshimasa Igari, Hiroshi Nakano, Kenzo Oba
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2012.23053
Abstract: We evaluated the effect of sitagliptin on vascular endothelial function in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients without cardiovascular disease. Subjects included 24 Japanese type 2 diabetes patients without cardiovascular disease. This study was a prospective, open-label, randomized clinical trial. We divided the study subjects into 2 groups: subjects who received sitagliptin 50 mg daily (sitagliptin group, n = 12) and subjects who did not receive sitagliptin (control group, n = 12). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured after overnight fasting. Sitagliptin administration was initiated at 1 month after enrollment in study (baseline). FMD and level of biochemical variables in the sitagliptin and control groups were measured at baseline and 3 months from baseline (3 months). We evaluated the effect of sitagliptin on vascular endothelial function by measuring FMD. FMD at 3 months was significantly higher in the sitagliptin group than in the control group (5.36% ± 2.18% vs 3.41% ± 2.29%, P = 0.040), while FMD at baseline was not significantly different between the 2 groups. In addition, FMD of the sitagliptin group at 3 months was significantly higher than that at baseline (5.36% ± 2.18% vs 3.67% ± 2.30%, P = 0.004), while no significant differences were observed in the FMD of the control group during the study period. The change in the adiponectin from baseline to 3 months was significantly higher in the sitagliptin group than that in the control group (0.82 ± 2.18 μg/mL vs 0.01 ± 0.55 μg/mL, P = 0.039). Sitagliptin improves vascular endothelial function of the brachial artery in Japanese type 2 diabetes patients without cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, elevation of adiponectin may induce reduction of endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes patients treated with sitagliptin.
Polyphenols from Cocoa and Vascular Health—A Critical Review
Gerald Rimbach,Mona Melchin,Jennifer Moehring,Anika E. Wagner
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/ijms10104290
Abstract: Cocoa is a rich source of dietary polyphenols. In vitro as well as cell culture data indicate that cocoa polyphenols may exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, as well as anti-atherogenic activity. Several molecular targets (e.g., nuclear factor kappa B, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, angiotensin converting enzyme) have been recently identified which may partly explain potential beneficial cardiovascular effects of cocoa polyphenols. However cocoa polyphenol concentrations, as used in many cell culture studies, are not physiologically achievable. Bioavailability studies indicate that plasma concentrations of cocoa polyphenols following dietary intake are low and in the nanomolar range. Human studies regarding the effect of cocoa polyphenols on vascular health are often underpowered and lack a rigorous study design. If dietary cocoa polyphenol intake is due to chocolate its high energy content needs to be taken into account. In order to determine potential health benefits of cocoa polyphenols large scale, long term, randomized, placebo controlled studies, (ideally with a cross-over design) as well as prospective studies are warranted.
Postprandial hyperglycemia and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes: focus on mitiglinide
Lisa Kitasato, Taiki Tojo, Yuko Hatakeyama, Ryo Kameda, Takehiro Hashikata, Minako Yamaoka-Tojo
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-79
Abstract: Endothelial dysfunction occurs in diabetes patients, especially in chronic hyperglycemic condition [1-3]. Noninvasive testing of endothelial function for cardiovascular risk stratification has been the “holy grail” of Cardiology for some time [4]. Unfortunately, because of technical difficulties, the measurement of shear stress-induced flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery by arterial ultrasound was used to evaluate vascular endothelial function and is not yet commonly practiced in large-scale clinical trials [5,6]. Instead of FMD, new techniques have recently been proposed as potentially applicable screening tools for evaluating vascular endothelial function in humans. A novel noninvasive vascular test by pulse amplitude tonometry (PAT) before and after reactive hyperemia (RH) is particularly noteworthy [7]. Measuring digital RH-PAT involves quantifying arterial pulsatile volume at rest and during a condition of increased shear stress that results in the release of nitric oxide (NO) [8]. At least 50% of RH is dependent on endothelial NO production [9]. PAT is performed before and after a 5-min ischemic stress, generating an RH-PAT index, which is normalized with respect to the control arm [10]. According to a previous clinical study, 94 patients without obstructive coronary artery disease and with/without coronary microvascular endothelial dysfunction were examined using RH-PAT; the average RH-PAT index was lower in patients with coronary endothelial dysfunction than in those with normal coronary endothelial function (1.27?±?0.05 vs 1.78?±?0.08; P?<?0.001) [7].Clinical studies using the PAT probe have suggested altered endothelial function in children with cardiovascular risk of type 1 diabetes [11]. Further, impaired RH-PAT responses have been shown to be inversely related to multiple risk factors, particularly diabetes, obesity, high cholesterol concentrations, and smoking, in a group of nearly 2000 subjects in the Framingham Third Generation Coho
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