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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 189868 matches for " eMalick G. Njie "
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A Preclinical Assessment of Neural Stem Cells as Delivery Vehicles for Anti-Amyloid Therapeutics
eMalick G. Njie, Svetlana Kantorovich, Garrett W. Astary, Cameron Green, Tong Zheng, Susan L. Semple-Rowland, Dennis A. Steindler, Malisa Sarntinoranont, Wolfgang J. Streit, David R. Borchelt
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034097
Abstract: Transplantation of neural stems cells (NSCs) could be a useful means to deliver biologic therapeutics for late-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we conducted a small preclinical investigation of whether NSCs could be modified to express metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), a secreted protease reported to degrade aggregated Aβ peptides that are the major constituents of the senile plaques. Our findings illuminated three issues with using NSCs as delivery vehicles for this particular application. First, transplanted NSCs generally failed to migrate to amyloid plaques, instead tending to colonize white matter tracts. Second, the final destination of these cells was highly influenced by how they were delivered. We found that our injection methods led to cells largely distributing to white matter tracts, which are anisotropic conduits for fluids that facilitate rapid distribution within the CNS. Third, with regard to MMP9 as a therapeutic to remove senile plaques, we observed high concentrations of endogenous metalloproteinases around amyloid plaques in the mouse models used for these preclinical tests with no evidence that the NSC-delivered enzymes elevated these activities or had any impact. Interestingly, MMP9-expressing NSCs formed substantially larger grafts. Overall, we observed long-term survival of NSCs in the brains of mice with high amyloid burden. Therefore, we conclude that such cells may have potential in therapeutic applications in AD but improved targeting of these cells to disease-specific lesions may be required to enhance efficacy.
Antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from different water sources in the Mmabatho locality, Northwest Province, South Africa
Constance N. Wose Kinge,C. Njie Ateba,D. Tonderai Kawadza
South African Journal of Science , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajs.v106i1/2.14
Abstract: The antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli (E. coli), isolated from different water sources in the Mmabatho locality were evaluated. Water samples were collected from the local wastewater- and water-treatment plants, the Modimola Dam and homes in the area, and then analysed for the presence of E. coli, using standard methods. Presumptive isolates obtained were confirmed by the analytical profile index test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method. Of the 230 E. coli isolates tested, marked antibiotic resistances (over 70%) were observed for erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and norfloxacin. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also compiled. Overall, the phenotype T-Ap-E was frequent for E. coli isolated from the local wastewater and water-treatment plants, Modimola Dam and tap water. Cluster analysis performed showed a unique antibiotic resistance pattern which suggested a link between isolates from all sampling points. The findings indicated that improper wastewater treatment may have a potential impact on the dissemination and survival of E. coli, as well as other pathogenic bacteria in water for human and animal consumption. This may result in water- and food-borne disease outbreaks with a negative effect on antibiotic therapy.
Isolation of Environmental Bacteria from Surface and Drinking Water in Mafikeng, South Africa, and Characterization Using Their Antibiotic Resistance Profiles
Suma George Mulamattathil,Carlos Bezuidenhout,Moses Mbewe,Collins Njie Ateba
Journal of Pathogens , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/371208
Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify environmental bacteria from various raw water sources as well as the drinking water distributions system in Mafikeng, South Africa, and to determine their antibiotic resistance profiles. Water samples from five different sites (raw and drinking water) were analysed for the presence of faecal indicator bacteria as well as Aeromonas and Pseudomonas species. Faecal and total coliforms were detected in summer in the treated water samples from the Modimola dam and in the mixed water samples, with Pseudomonas spp. being the most prevalent organism. The most prevalent multiple antibiotic resistance phenotype observed was KF-AP-C-E-OT-K-TM-A. All organisms tested were resistant to erythromycin, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. to neomycin and streptomycin. Cluster analysis based on inhibition zone diameter data suggests that the isolates had similar chemical exposure histories. Isolates were identified using gyrB, toxA, ecfX, aerA, and hylH gene fragments and gyrB, ecfX, and hylH fragments were amplified. These results demonstrate that (i) the drinking water from Mafikeng contains various bacterial species and at times faecal and total coliforms. (ii) The various bacteria are resistant to various classes of antibiotics. 1. Introduction Water is considered a vehicle for the propagation and dissemination of human associated bacteria [1]. Safe drinking water is a fundamental human right and if contaminated with opportunistic pathogenic environmental bacteria, it may have health implications for consumers [2, 3]. Human health should therefore be protected by preventing microbial contamination of water that is intended for consumption [4]. In rural communities, untreated surface water from rivers, dams, and streams is directly used for drinking and other domestic purposes [5]. These unprotected water sources can be contaminated with microbes through rainfall run-off and agricultural inputs, mixing with sewage effluents and faeces from wild life [6, 7], which render them unacceptable for human consumption. Faecal coliforms, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas, are used as indicators of faecal contamination in water [8] and the presence of these pathogens may have severe health implications on consumers especially those that are immunocompromised [5, 9, 10]. South Africa is a semiarid country with very low rainfall and high evaporation [11] and it has a scarcity of fresh water systems due to the highly variable and spatial distribution of
Attainment of the Fifth Millennium Development Goal: Utopia or Reality Based on Trends in Maternal Mortality in 12 Years in Two Regional Hospitals in Fako Division, Cameroon? A Retrospective Study  [PDF]
Gregory Edie Halle Ekane, Thomas Egbe Obinchemti, Charlotte Nguefack Tchente, Lydia Kahgomia Fokunang, Theophile Nana Njamen, Ndamezie Nkafu Bechem, Martin Mafany Njie, Daniel Latum
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.413107
Abstract: Introduction: According to WHO, globally an estimated 585,000 women die each year from complications of pregnancy and childbirth. One of the targets of Millennium Development Goal 5 (MDG 5) is to reduce maternal mortality by three quarters of the 1999 value by the year 2015. However, three years to 2015, very little is known on the trends in maternal mortality ratio, causes of maternal deaths and their associated factors in the Tiko Cottage Hospital (TCH) and Limbe Regional Hospital (LRH) in the South-West Region, Cameroon. Methods: This was a retrospective, analytical cross-sectional study that was carried out from 1st January 2000 to December 2012. After obtaining ethical clearance, the records of cases of maternal deaths and a reference group of women who survived after a pregnancy during the same period were carefully reviewed. The data were analyzed with SPSS 10 and EPI 3.5.1. Results: There were 14,480 live births and 132 maternal deaths during the study period, giving an adjusted Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) of 892/100,000 live births. Patients’ age ranged from 15 - 40 years (SD 2.3). We observed a downwards trend of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR). Seventy-eight percent of the maternal deaths were due to direct causes. The triad of hemorrhage (54.5%), abortions (17.4%), and eclampsia (10.6%) was the leading cause of death. HIV-related complications and hepatitis constituted the main indirect causes of maternal death. In 85.4% of cases, maternal deaths were avoidable. Lack of blood for transfusion and late referral of cases were the main avoidable factors. Patients less than 35 years (p = 0.01), no antenatal care (ANC) (p = 0.001), unemployment [OR = 1.52; 95% CI: (1.38 - 48.28); p = 0.02] were significantly associated with maternal deaths while grand multiparity [OR = 1.20; 95%
Assessment of the Content and Utilization of Antenatal Care Services in a Rural Community in Cameroon: A Cross-Sectional Study  [PDF]
Gregory Edie Halle-Ekane, Thomas Egbe Obinchemti, Jeffrey-Lewis Nnomzo’o Nzang, Ngoe Morike Mokube, Martin Mafany Njie, Theophile Nana Njamen, Boniface T. Nasah
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.414119
Abstract: Background: Pregnant women receive antenatal care (ANC) to ensure favorable pregnancy outcomes. Despite the high ANC coverage rate registered nationally in Cameroon; rural women, women with no formal education and those in the most deprived quintile still face difficulties in having access to quality ANC. The impact of the aforementioned factors on ANC use in the Muea Health Area (MHA) is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of women attending ANC and the factors influencing ANC attendance in the MHA. Materials and Methods: This was a community based, analytical, cross sectional survey that involved pregnant women and women with children less than two years old who gave an informed consent or assent. Data were collected using a semi structured questionnaire. EPI info Version 7 and Stat Pac for Windows version 12? 1998-2011 (Stat Pac Inc, Bloomington, USA) were used for data analysis. Associations were considered statistically significant for p values less than 0.05. Results: Two hundred and twenty women were interviewed. The mean age was 25 years (SD 5.28). Ninety-nine percent of women had at least one ANC visit meanwhile 84.8% had at least four ANC visits. Only 27.2% of women booked for ANC in the first trimester. Rural (Maumu) residence was associated with inappropriate ANC attendance (attending less than four times) (χ2 = 18.5; p = 0.001). Semi urban women (87%; 95% C.I. = 85.10% - 89.0%) were more likely to attend four or more sessions than rural (Maumu) women (60.7%; 95% C.I. = 44.2% - 77.3%) (p = 0.001). Participant’s educational level was a significant predictor of early booking for ANC (χ2 = 26.8; p = 0.0002). Semi urban wom- en (79.1%; 95% C.I. = 76.0% - 82.2%) were significantly more likely to have a vaginal examination
Qualitative Detection of Proviral-DNA of HIV-1 in Infants to Determine the Efficacy of Antiretroviral Therapy in the Prevention of Vertical Transmission of HIV-1 in The Gambia  [PDF]
Lamin B. Cham, Pape Mbacké Sembene, Pa Ousman Bah, Musa Ceesay, Ebrima Joof, Abou Kebbeh, Massamba Gueye, Ebrima Njie, Bakary Sanneh
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2016.64019
Abstract: The priority of The Gambia government is to eliminate maternal to child transmission of HIV and in line with this priority, the country implemented an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program. With this, all HIV infected pregnant and breastfeeding mothers and infants have access to ARV drugs. This study aims to determine the prevalence of vertical transmission of HIV among women receiving the ARV drugs. Dried blood spot samples were collected from 109 HIV-exposed infants enrolled in 13 PMTCT sites across the country. A qualitative detection of proviral-DNA of HIV-1 was performed using the RealTime Abbott PCR assay. Data from 105 mothers were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and association of risk factors to PCR results were analyzed using (Crosstabs) Pearson Chi-Square. The p-value of significant was set at p < 0.05. This study has found that the prevalence of vertical transmission of HIV is 0.0% (0/64) among women that received the ARV prophylaxis then started ART, 7.1% (2/28) among mothers that received HIV prophylaxis only, and 38.4% (5/13) among women who neither receive HIV-prophylaxis nor ART during pregnancy or breastfeeding. Other risk factors of vertical transmission such as late initiation of treatment, default during treatment and first born of twins were found to be significantly associated with vertical transmission p = 0.001, p = 0.022 and p = 0.000 respectively. This study has found that the early intervention of ART at the onset of pregnancy through breastfeeding can eliminates Maternal to Child transmission of HIV-1and a high risk of vertical transmission was found among women who neither receive prophylaxis nor ART. If the effectiveness of the antiretroviral therapy is maintain, The Gambia, in the near future will attain the WHO’s goal to eliminate maternal to child transmission of HIV.
Burns in pregnancy: a case report from Buea Regional Hospital, Cameroon
John Ahmadou Mokube,Vincent Siysi Verla,Victor Njie Mbome,Aimié Thierry Bitang
Pan African Medical Journal , 2009,
Abstract: To the best of our knowledge similar cases of severe burns in pregnancy have not been published in Cameroon; indicating the rarity of this devastating condition and therefore the dilemma that practitioners may be confronted with in its management. This report is to help the Physician understand the factors that should determine his/her management decisions by reviewing the limited literature of burns in pregnancy. A multidisciplinary approach by a team of Obstetricians, Anesthetist/Intensive care Physicians, Pediatricians and Surgeons is indispensible. Adequate resuscitation, fight against sepsis, the gestational age and the severity of the burn will determine the outcome or prognosis.
Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: The Secret World of Women as Seen by Men
Adriana Kaplan,Babucarr Cham,Lamin A. Njie,Ana Seixas,Sandra Blanco,Mireia Utzet
Obstetrics and Gynecology International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/643780
Abstract: Efforts aimed at the abandonment of Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in the communities where it is deeply rooted have extensively considered and addressed women’s perceptions on the issue, leaving those of men barely acknowledged. Although the practice is generally confined to the secret world of women, it does not mean that men cannot be influential. Indeed, men can play an important role in prevention. In order to address this gap, and having as background an extensive ethnographic field work, a transversal descriptive study was designed to explore Gambian men’s knowledge and attitudes towards FGM/C, as well as related practices in their family/household. Results show ethnic identity, more than religion, as the decisive shaping factor on how men conceive and value FGM/C. The greater support towards the practice is found among traditionally practicing groups. A substantial proportion of men intend to have it performed on their daughters, although reporting a low involvement in the decision making process, with very few taking alone the final decision. Only a minority is aware of FGM/C health consequences, but those who understand its negative impact on the health and well-being of girls and women are quite willing to play a role in its prevention. 1. Introduction Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) [1] as all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or injury to the female genital organs, for nontherapeutic reasons. The WHO classifies the practice into four types: type I (clitoridectomy), type II (excision), and type III (infibulation) are ordered according to a growing level of severity, while type IV comprises all other harmful procedures performed on the female genitalia for nonmedical purposes (e.g., pricking, piercing, incising, scraping, and cauterization). According to the WHO latest data, 140 million women and girls in the whole world are thought to have been subjected to the practice, and 3 million girls are at risk of having it performed every year. FGM/C constitutes an extreme form of discrimination and violation of the human rights of girls and women, with health consequences now acknowledged and documented. In the short term, the practice can result in shock, haemorrhage, infections, and psychological consequences, while in the long term it can lead to chronic pain, infections, keloids, fibrosis, primary infertility, increase in delivery complications, and psychological sequela/trauma [2–7]. FGM/C has been practiced for centuries,
Beyond good intentions: lessons on equipment donation from an African hospital
Howie,Stephen RC; Hill,Sarah E; Peel,David; Sanneh,Momodou; Njie,Malick; Hill,Philip C; Mulholland,Kim; Adegbola,Richard A;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862008000100015
Abstract: objective: in 2000, a referral hospital in the gambia accepted a donation of oxygen concentrators to help maintain oxygen supplies. the concentrators broke down and were put into storage. a case study was done to find the reasons for the problem and to draw lessons to help improve both oxygen supplies and the success of future equipment donations. methods: a technical assessment of the concentrators was carried out by a biomedical engineer with relevant expertise. semi-structured interviews were undertaken with key informants, and content analysis and inductive approaches were applied to construct the history of the episode and the reasons for the failure. findings: interviews confirmed the importance of technical problems with the equipment. they also revealed that the donation process was flawed, and that the hospital did not have the expertise to assess or maintain the equipment. technical assessment showed that all units had the wrong voltage and frequency, leading to overheating and breakdown. subsequently a hospital donations committee was established to oversee the donations process. on-site biomedical engineering expertise was arranged with a nongovernmental organization (ngo) partner. conclusion: appropriate donations of medical equipment, including oxygen concentrators, can be of benefit to hospitals in resource-poor settings, but recipients and donors need to actively manage donations to ensure that the donations are beneficial. success requires planning, technical expertise and local participation. partners with relevant skills and resources may also be needed. in 2002, who produced guidelines for medical equipment donations, which address problems that might be encountered. these guidelines should be publicized and used.
Prevention of the Recurrence of Anaemia in Gambian Children Following Discharge from Hospital
Kalifa A. Bojang,Paul J. M. Milligan,David J. Conway,Fatou Sisay-Joof,Muminatou Jallow,Davis C. Nwakanma,Ismaela Abubakr,Fanta Njie,Brian Greenwood
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011227
Abstract: In malaria endemic countries, children who have experienced an episode of severe anaemia are at increased risk of a recurrence of anaemia. There is a need to find ways of protecting these at risk children from malaria and chemoprevention offers a potential way of achieving this objective.
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