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Wind Field Modifications in Habitable Urban Areas
Seemi Ahmed,Alka Bharat
Current World Environment , 2012, DOI: 10.12944/cwe.7.2.11
Abstract: This paper discusses different criteria for the assessment of wind field environmentsin urban areas and how they relate to field observations. The importance of the inclusion of wind environment studies in the planning process is also discussed. The increasing influence of the built environment on wind speed and direction makes any forecast for heights below 50 meter very hazardous1. This increase in the areas with more built form where the roughness is extremely high. It is not always possible to make a quantitative forecast of wind speed and direction in urban environment. Examples are provided to illustrate how development controls can be designed to ensure that pedestrian amenity is not compromised by new development while at the same time not become a burden to innovative design approaches or good design practice due to wind modification. The paper concludes with a number of case studies that provide examples of how innovative techniques for mitigation of adverse wind environments can achieve the desired level of pedestrian amenity without having to compromise with the architectural design intent.
Quality of Urban Environment: A Critical Review of Approaches and Methodologies  [PDF]
Mohammad Firoz Khan, Subia Aftab, ? Fakhruddin
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2015.34029
Abstract: It is a well-known fact that quality of environment in urban habitats has deteriorated throughout the world over time and the down-slide still continues. It is a matter of great concern as it affects human well-being and health. This problem under the general umbrella of quality of life studies has been examined from different angles. At the centre stage in this paper it is the quality of environment from a human perspective to inform the policy makers about the hiatus between objective (empirical) and perceived quality of environment [QOE]. Indeed, some qualitative studies are successful in finding out deeper issues in respect of environmental degradation of urban habitats which should be brought to the notice of urban planners and designers. However, studies carried out in environmental psychology, in many cases, have failed to philosophical underpinnings and appropriateness of methodology. They are unable in theorising the quality of the urban environment to the satisfaction of critical evaluation. The present paper is a humble attempt to critically evaluate the objective and perceptual approaches and methodologies to understand and evaluate quality of the urban environment. In the process, their philosophical foundations are also subjected to critical evaluation to conclude which one of the two approaches better informs policy makers concerned with urban development and renewal programmes.
Referential alarm calling behaviour in New World primates
Cristiane C?SAR, Klaus ZUBERBüHLER
Current Zoology , 2012,
Abstract: There is relatively good evidence that non-human primates can communicate about objects and events in their environment in ways that allow recipients to draw inferences about the nature of the event experienced by the signaller. In some species, there is also evidence that the basic semantic units are not individual calls, but call sequences and the combinations generated by them. These two findings are relevant to theories pertaining to the origins of human language because of the resemblances of these phenomena with linguistic reference and syntactic organisation. Until recently, however, most research efforts on the primate origins of human language have involved Old World species with comparatively few systematic studies on New World monkeys, which has prevented insights into the deeper phylogenetic roots and evolutionary origins of language-relevant capacities. To address this, we review the older primate literature and very recent evidence for functionally referential communication and call combinations in New World primates. Within the existing literature there is ample evidence in both Callitrichids and Cebids for acoustically distinct call variants given to external disturbances that are accompanied by distinct behavioural responses. A general pattern is that one call type is typically produced in response to a wide range of general disturbances, often on the ground but also including inter-group encounters, while another call type is produced in response to a much narrower range of aerial threats. This pattern is already described for Old World monkeys and Prosimians, suggesting an early evolutionary origin. Second, recent work with black-fronted titi monkeys has produced evidence for different alarm call sequences consisting of acoustically distinct call types. These sequences appear to encode several aspects of the predation event simultaneously, notably predator type and location. Since meaningful call sequences have already been described in Old World primates, we suggest that basic combinatorial vocal communication has evolved in the primate lineage long before the advent of language. Moreover, it is possible that some of these communicative abilities have evolved even earlier, or independently, as there is comparable evidence in other taxonomic groups. We discuss these findings in an attempt to shed further light on the primate stock from which human language has arisen [Current Zoology 58 (5): 680-697, 2012].
Determination of Invisible Environmental Pollution Due to Cell Phones EMF Radiation and projections for 2030
K Parandham Gowd,R. P Gupta,Sangeeta Jauhari
Current World Environment , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/cwe.8.2.14
Abstract: In the last decades cell phones usage have altered the land scape of modern human beings in countless ways, in office, at home and on mobility. However, created the environmental electronic pollution due to electromagnetic fields. In spite of the recent studies indicating possible harmful impact of EMF pollution on several species, there is no long term data available on the environmental impacts of EMF pollution and how much power density is radiated in the environment due to cell phones. The aim of this research work is to experimentally measure the EMF radiated electronic pollution levels of cell phones in three different states such as on(sleep/idle) mode, receive and transmit modes as an invisible environmental pollution. These measurements are carried out at the centre frequency of 1800 MHz and in the 300 MHz- 50 GHz frequency band. Another main aim is to carry out the projections of cell phones growth due to exponentially expanding mobile technology products, industrialization along with urbanization. Further to estimate the current (2013) EMF radiation pollution levels into environment and projections for 2030 due to cell phones.
Extracts of Kashmiri Saffron in Service to Human Race and Present Ground Realities
Mohammad Imran,Neelofar Jabeen
Current World Environment , 2012, DOI: 10.12944/cwe.7.2.12
Abstract: The Kashmir valley is well known for producing high quality of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and represents one of the major saffron-producing areas of the world. Saffron has been traditionally used in preparation of indigenous medicines and also as a dye. The extracts of the parts of saffron plant is being used in cosmetics and in many drugs to cure different ailments. In present document the potential role of the saffron and its parts cultivated in Kashmir valley and the diseases like cancer to be cured from them are being discussed. Concerns on the low production rate due to urbanization and shrinking of the cultivated land and probable adoptions to be implemented to avoid the loss of economy are being discussed.
Environmental Effect on the Biological Behavior of The Cucurbit Beetle Epilachna chrysomelina in Al-Qunfudah Province-Saudi Arabia
Saleh A. Aldigail,Ahmed I. Alsaggaff,Osama M. Bahareth,Abbas M. Al-Azab
Current World Environment , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/cwe.8.2.10
Abstract: Epilachna chrysomelina (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is a phytophagous insect with an economic importance damaging the agricultural crops. The Melon Ladybird Beetle, E. Chrysomelinais one of the major phytophagous insects that feed on cucurbit plants. It is considered an economic pest in agriculture and multi-habitat insect widely distributed throughout the world. The insect is abundant in the southern region of Saudi Arabia and choose the most favourable conditions for its life cycle completion. It prefers humid habitats with optimum temperature degrees. The generations of the insect are affected by changes in environmental conditions and its numbers increase or decline according to variation in temperature and relative humidity (RH). These factors play an important role in changing its biological behaviour particularly feeding, breeding, reproduction and development of its generations. There were significant differences between the different developmental stages in the periods of time of their development.
Assessment of Odor Annoying Impacts on Trade and Serving Centers Close to a Vegetable Oil Manufacturing Plant
Mohammad Reza Monazzam,M.Avishan,M.Asghari,M. Boubehrejh
Current World Environment , 2012, DOI: 10.12944/cwe.7.2.01
Abstract: The environmental odor pollution emitted from different sources has undesirable impacts on communities' health and welfare in a way that caused increasing public worry and complains around the world.Pars Vegetable Oil Processing Plant (PVOPP) is located near populated residential areas in Tehran; hence, many people are exposed to the plant process annoying odor daily. In order to assess the odor annoying impacts on its nearby business centers a social survey has been applied.In the field area 200 questionnaires were intended to be filled out but 180 of them have been completed by the respondents (90%). Almost 98% of the respondents have perceived the odor from the outdoor source in their working places which is known as the industry by 78% of them. Among the respondents 42% of them have defined the odor as intolerable.Considering that industry has been recognized as the most important external parameter which affect the quality of working environments, the impact of this industrial unit on decreasing the quality level of working conditions is more obvious. The duration of presence in the working place and record of service are related to disorders in working activity and emotion and thus confirm the odor pollution impacts on the employees' efficiency.
Document on fluoride accumulation in ground and surface water of Mysore, Karnataka, India
Mamatha S.V.,Devendra J. Haware
Current World Environment , 2013, DOI: ttp://dx.doi.org/10.12944/cwe.8.2.11
Abstract: We have documented various levels of fluoride in groundwater, running water (i.e streams, canals, river) and lake water in 130 samples collected from various sources in Mysore District. Mysore is one of the most popular tourist places in India. Fluoride is one of the parameter of water analysis, which is non-degradable and persists in the environment. Fluoride was assessed by Zirconyl- SPADNS method. Fluoride level varied from 0.2 mg/L to 3.0 mg/L with the highest level at Dalvoy Lake (3.0 ppm) followed by Lingambudi Borewell water (2.9 ppm) giving a cautious alarm for an awareness to the Mysoreans.Water samples from north-eastern part of Piriyapatna, a small pocket of southern part of H.D.Kote and an extreme southern part of Mysore taluk (urban) were having fluoride concentration above acceptable range of WHO and BIS standard.
Odour Pollution Measurement from Refuse Derive Fuel Operations Using Odour Concentration Meter (OCM) XP-329
Zaini Sakawi,Lukman Ismail,Mohd Rozaimi Ariffin,School of Social, Development, Environmental Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
Current World Environment , 2013, DOI: 10.12944/cwe.8.1.02
Abstract: Odour perception is subjective and difficult to be accurately measured between individuals. Hence many studies on odour issues are more commonly pertain to its intensity, concentration, types, standards, measurement methods, law and impacts on physical and human environments. Nevertheless, odour analysis can be conducted empirically or based on human sensorial. Among major sources of odour pollution are animal rearing, oil palm and rubber mills, dumpsites, industries and sewage treatments. This study attempted to measure odour pollution generated by Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) operation. The analysis was conducted at different times of day (morning, evening and night) and weather conditions (normal days and after rains). 10 sampling stations were selected for observations using the Odour Concentration Meter Siri XP-329 III.The results indicated that there existed different level of odour concentrations on normal days and after rains due to the influence of meteorological environment. Distance factors also influenced the odour concentrations, whereby gradually, the stations further from RDF operation recorded higher odour concentrations
Spectroscopic Methods for the Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides – A Preview
Vijay Kumar,Niraj Upadhay,A. B. Wasit,Simranjeet Singh
Current World Environment , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/cwe.8.2.19
Abstract: Organophosphate pesticides are the ester forms of phosphoric acid usually considered as secure for agriculture uses due to their relatively fast degradation rates. Organophosphorus pesticides have been extensively used in the area of agriculture to manage insect or pests of a number of economically important crops. Organophosphate pesticides are well-known as the inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase activity, not in insects only, but can also affect the nervous system of other organisms as well as humans. Organophosphorus pesticides are not restricted to anticholinesterase action, but comprise genotoxicity and teratogenicity including other environmental and ecological adverse impact. Such severe health and ecological consequences signify a requirement for a better understanding of the fate of organophosphates in the environment. By kept all these things in mind we have written a review on organophosphorus pesticides. In this review we have previewed the different methods of spectroscopic methods of detection including UV-visible, X-ray, Mass analysis, NMR, electrochemical analysis (sensor based) and FTIR. Among all these mass and electrochemical studies were flourished till date and considered as advanced techniques for the analysis of other pesticides also.
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